Nigeria Electric Power from 4000 to 100000 mega watts
Presently, Nigeria electric Capacity stands at 4,000 mega watts for a population of about 150 Million.
Contrast it to South Africa, generates 40,000 mega watts with population of just 50 million and Brazil has 100,000 mega watts with a population of 192 million
Nigeria lags significantly behind in access, quality and availability of public electricity supply. This threatens the actualisation of the socio-economic goals of alleviating poverty, jobs and wealth creation.
Nigeria needs to be generating 100,000 mega watts for Nigeria population to enjoy a stable electricity.
NIGERIA POWER STATIONS AND CAPACITY (some stations not operational or partially operational)
AES Barge (IPP) – capacity 270MW
Aba Power Station – capacity 140MW
Afam IV-V Power Station – capacity – 726MW
Afam VI Power Station (IPP) – capacity 624MW
Alaoji Power Station – capacity 1074MW
Calabar Power Station (NIPP) -capacity 561MW
Egbema Power Station (NIPP) -capacity 338MW
Egbin Thermal Power Station – capacity 1320 MW
Geregu I Power Station- capacity 414MW
Geregu II Power Station (NIPP) – capacity 434 MW
Ibom Power Station (IPP) – capacity 190 MW
Ihovbor Power Station (NIPP) – capacity 450MW
Okpai Power Station (IPP) – capacity 480 MW
Olorunsogo Power Station – capacity 336MW
Olorunsogo II Power Station (NIPP) – capacity 675MW
Omoku Power Station (IPP) – capacity 150MW
Omoku II Power Station (NIPP) – capacity 225MW
Omotosho I Power Station (FGN-Privatized) – capacity 336MW
Omotosho II Power Station (NIPP) – capacity 450MW
Sapele Power Station-Privatized – capacity 1020 MW
Sapele Power Station (NIPP) – capacity 450 MW
Transcorp Ughelli Power Station (privatised) known also as Delta power station. – capacity 900MW
Kainji Power – capacity 800 MW
Jebba Power Station – capacity 540 MW
Shiroro Power Station – capacity 600 MW
Zamfara Power Station – capacity 100MW
The Nigeria govt needs to privatise the different sector of electricity generation and distribution. This should be in the hands of technocrats with expertise in the energy sector not politicians.
Though privatisaton of some part of the energy sector 2013 is still yet to yield increase in the power sector.
Protection from Sabotage
ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION
The govt have to build more power plant. They have to build New dams, new turbines, new wind mills, new coals etc
TRANSMISSION and DISTRIBUTION
Without the Transmission and distribution lines upgrade, all mega watts generated will be wasted and redundant. At the moment the infrastructure is dilapidated.
Transmission is currently a major challenge. The Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN) remains a government entity, despite it being managed by Canadian company, Manitoba Hydro International.
TCN continues to operate obsolete transmission equipment and held back by bureaucratic processes.
All customers should be meter. With electricity passing through houses or companies, it can be set up as “pay-per watts”…recharge card system. It is very important people pay their electric bills for the govt to generate enough funds to maintain and improve the infrastructure.
Presently most of the power plants in Nigeria have broken down or partially operational due to lack of maintenance.
This is very critical to maintain a steady electric to homes and business. Investing billions in new power plants is important, but maintaining them is also very critical
PROTECTION FROM SABOTAGE
Protecting the energy infrastructure from vandalism is critical.
COST OF FUNDING THE ELECTRIC INFRASTRUCTURE.
Billions have been squandered by several government, that is why despite been the Giant economy in Africa.
Nigeria generate less power compared to Ghana, South Africa, Egypt etc.
It requires Billions of naira to build power plants, upgrade transmission/distribution lines etc
Professor Igwe Onuoha of Niger Delta Power Holding Company has said it will take the nation trillion of naira. Pointing out one million dollars will give you one megawatt, meaning 100 megawatts will cost 100 million dollars.
Different types of electric generating sources
Fossil-fuel based generation: Fossil-fuel based power generation is the single largest source of electricity generation in Africa. However, fossil fuels are the most expensive means for generating electricity, and this could be exacerbated by high fuel prices. In a number of countries, emergency energy solutions, which constitute a large part of installed capacity, also rely mostly on fossil-fuel energy.
Exploiting renewable energy sources: Renewable energy is energy generated from natural resources—such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat—which are renewable (naturally replenished). Renewable energy technologies range from solar power, wind power, hydroelectricity/micro hydro, biomass and biofuels for transportation
Thermal power station
Coal, oil, gas and nuclear fuels can be used to heat water and convert it into steam at high temperatures and pressures. This is done in boilers or reactors. The very hot steam, at temperatures of between 500 C and 535 C, is released and turns a large turbine, connected to the rotating magnet and electricity is generated. In this way the energy in the fuel has been converted into electricity. Apart from thermal power station, there are other method by which electricity can be generated. Some are listed below
In mountainous countries, hydro electricity is an important source. These hydro-generating plants are also referred to as peaking power stations. These are the conventional hydro and the pumped storage systems. In the conventional system, water is stored behind a dam wall. The water can be released to drive huge turbines, which are connected to generators for power generation. The power station is normally situated close to the dam wall.
The other system utilizes pumped storage plant. This is the only practical way at present of storing “electricity” on a large scale. The idea is simply to use surplus electricity -for example, at night or week-ends when we are using less electricity (off-peak periods) – to pump water to a mountain top reservoir. This water can also be used as a supplement for other water schemes.
In an event of a shortage of supply of electricity from other power generating stations, the top reservoir can be emptied very quickly back down through the turbine to regenerate electricity. In other words, the motor, which was driving a pump, becomes a generator driven by a turbine.
Power generation from these plants is limited as they rely on the water level of the dams or rivers which in turn is affected by the rainfall in its catchment area.
Geothermal power stations are similar to other steam turbine thermal power stations – heat from a fuel source (in geothermal’s case, the earth’s core) is used to heat water or another working fluid. The working fluid is then used to turn a turbine of a generator, thereby producing electricity.
Solar energy is captured, concentrated and stored by green plants to create fuels, but there are possibilities for harnessing it directly to make electricity.
The success of solar cells, which convert sunlight directly into electricity, has encouraged the idea of solar energy as a clean and free source of electricity. Solar cells provide the electricity needs for most satellites in orbit around the Earth.
On the Earth’s surface, our power requirements are more substantial and the atmosphere reduces the intensity of the sun. Very large areas of solar panels are required to produce useful amounts of electricity. The investment cost, although falling, is still very high. But solar cells are finding many applications in sunny countries in powering warning beacons, microwave Repeaters, water pumping and weather stations etc. A limited domestic use is also possible. Eskom and other energy providers work together in supplying an energy source to its customers, i.e. gas for cooking and electricity through solar systems for lights, radio and TV.
Tidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energy obtained from tides into useful forms of power, mainly electricity. Although not yet widely used, tidal power has potential for future electricity generation. Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power. Tide is created by the gravitational effect of the sun and the moon on the earth causing cyclical movement of the seas.
Wavepower is developing commercially viable technology that uses ocean waves as a source of energy to generate electricity.
Wave power is the transport of energy by wind waves, and the capture of that energy to do useful work – for example, electricity generation, water desalination, or the pumping of water (into reservoirs). A machine able to exploit wave power is generally known as a wave energy converter
A power station generator is a powerful electromagnet a coil energised by direct current to produce a magnetic field. This is mounted on the central rotating shaft, and is called the rotor. Around the rotor is a series of coils called the stator in which the electrical voltage is generated by the rotating magnetic field. Both rotor and stator may weigh several hundred tons.
The rotor, connected to a turbine, turns at 3000 revolutions per minute – 50 cycles per second -to produce alternating current with a frequency of 50 hertz (cycles per second). Modern generators (in thermal power plants) typically produce 500- 600 megawatts of power – enough to light 5 -6 million lOO-watt bulbs. Other power generating plants as mentioned, can produce between I KW -250 MW of electrical energy, e.g. wind, tidal, wave etc.
How electricity gets to your home When you next switch on the electric light or the television, stop to think for a moment of all the work which has been done to generate (make) electricity and to get it to your home.
Power stations are linked by transmission lines and towers called pylons. Transmission is a word from the verb “to transmit” which means to send from one place to another. Transmission lines send the electricity through thick aluminium and copper wires. The network of transmission lines is called the National Grid.
In order for the electricity to be transmitted safely and efficiently, it must be at a high voltage (pressure) and a low current. This is because if the current is too high, the cable would heat up too much and even melt and if the voltage were too low, hardly any energy would be carried. Remember that we need the pressure volts to enable us to transmit electricity over vast distances. The generators in the power stations produce electricity at 20000 volts. This voltage is raised or transformed before it is sent out at 132000, 275000, 400000 or even 765000 volts onto the transmission grid. These very high voltages are necessary to push the required flow of electricity through the wires and keep costs down.
The electricity is transformed down to 11 000 volts for local distribution and then further reduced according to the need – for example, 240 (220) volts for domestic use. The electricity entering your home at 240 volts has had an eventful journey. From the initial high voltage transmission grid to a lower voltage distribution network. Travelling over ground and (probably) underground for great many kilometers, it has been transformed many times on the way.
You’ve probably seen some of the equipment, which performs these operations in your local area. They are known as substations, which can be found in many sizes – small transformers mounted on wooden poles, larger transformers sitting behind high fences and huge arrays of strangely shaped devices on sites occupying several hectares.
A transformer is basically a very simple device. The alternating current is led through primary coil of wire, which produces an alternating magnetic field in the ring-shaped core of soft iron. This in turn creates a voltage in a secondary coil, from which the output current can be drawn. If the secondary coil has more turns than the primary, the output voltage is higher than the input voltage. This is a step-up transformer. A step-down transformer has more turns in the primary coil than in the secondary coil to reduce the voltage.
Many African countries are doing agriculture, if one would ask ‘What do we with the Agricultural waste?” Bio-energy has a huge potential in Africa, proper planning needs to be taken for this to happen.