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Mansa Musa Gold and Wealth

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Posted by: | December 23, 2016

Posted on: 2016 December 23
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Posted by: | December 12, 2016

Posted on: 2016 December 12
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Posted by: | December 11, 2016

Posted on: 2016 December 11

How exchnGE RATE IS DETERMINE

n the case of currencies with floating exchange rates, currency traders. Currency is constantly being bought and sold around the world and like any other product, the value is determined by supply and demand. When more people are trying to buy a certain currency, its value goes up, when more people try to sell it, its value goes down. For example, a couple of years ago, currency traders started buying a lot of Swiss francs. Switzerland is a small country, so it generally doesn’t print a lot of money and the demand become much greater than the supply. Therefore, those who were selling Swiss francs could ask for more in return, driving up the exchange rate. Between April and July 2012, the Swiss franc went from being 1.32 to 1 euro to 1.04 to 1 euro as currency traders wanted francs instead of euros. The Swiss National Bank finally responded by increasing its foreign currency reserves and stating that, no matter what, it would exchange Swiss francs at 1.20 to 1 euro. Because the Swiss National Bank is the largest supplier of Swiss francs, this forced all currency traders selling Swiss francs to lower their prices. This effectively placed the Swiss franc on a fixed exchange rate with the euro. When a fixed exchange rate is in place, the value of the currency doesn’t change according the market conditions. The government or central bank guarantees the value of the currency generally through foreign currency reserves. As in the case in Switzerland, the Swiss National Bank guaranteed that it had enough euros and francs that it could offer to buy and sell francs at 1.20 to 1 euro for the foreseeable future without exhausting its reserves. Sometimes this doesn’t work. Ukraine has for several years maintained an exchange rate of 8 hryvnia to 1 US dollar. However, due to long-term financial difficulties, Ukraine lacks the reserves to continue maintaining that exchange rate. To help decrease pressure on its reserves, the value of the hryvnia is now at 8.82 to 1 dollar and falling. In the past, countries would base the value of their currency on a commodity, most commonly gold, often using the Spanish dollar as the basic unit of value. However, overtime countries would revalue their currencies, switch between gold and silver standards, create fiat currencies, etc. For example, in 1871, The US dollar and the Japanese yen were approximately the same value. However, as Japan switched between the silver standard, gold standard, free-floating, and finally suffering massive inflation due to World War II, its value continuously declined until 1949 when was fixed at 360 yen to 1 US dollar. After a strong economic recovery, Japan left the fixed exchange rate in 1971 and is now valued at approximately 1

n the case of currencies with floating exchange rates, currency traders. Currency is constantly being bought and sold around the world and like any other product, the value is determined by supply and demand. When more people are trying to buy a certain currency, its value goes up, when more people try to sell it, its value goes down. For example, a couple of years ago, currency traders started buying a lot of Swiss francs. Switzerland is a small country, so it generally doesn’t print a lot of money and the demand become much greater than the supply. Therefore, those who were selling Swiss francs could ask for more in return, driving up the exchange rate. Between April and July 2012, the Swiss franc went from being 1.32 to 1 euro to 1.04 to 1 euro as currency traders wanted francs instead of euros. The Swiss National Bank finally responded by increasing its foreign currency reserves and stating that, no matter what, it would exchange Swiss francs at 1.20 to 1 euro. Because the Swiss National Bank is the largest supplier of Swiss francs, this forced all currency traders selling Swiss francs to lower their prices. This effectively placed the Swiss franc on a fixed exchange rate with the euro. When a fixed exchange rate is in place, the value of the currency doesn’t change according the market conditions. The government or central bank guarantees the value of the currency generally through foreign currency reserves. As in the case in Switzerland, the Swiss National Bank guaranteed that it had enough euros and francs that it could offer to buy and sell francs at 1.20 to 1 euro for the foreseeable future without exhausting its reserves. Sometimes this doesn’t work. Ukraine has for several years maintained an exchange rate of 8 hryvnia to 1 US dollar. However, due to long-term financial difficulties, Ukraine lacks the reserves to continue maintaining that exchange rate. To help decrease pressure on its reserves, the value of the hryvnia is now at 8.82 to 1 dollar and falling. In the past, countries would base the value of their currency on a commodity, most commonly gold, often using the Spanish dollar as the basic unit of value. However, overtime countries would revalue their currencies, switch between gold and silver standards, create fiat currencies, etc. For example, in 1871, The US dollar and the Japanese yen were approximately the same value. However, as Japan switched between the silver standard, gold standard, free-floating, and finally suffering massive inflation due to World War II, its value continuously declined until 1949 when was fixed at 360 yen to 1 US dollar. After a strong economic recovery, Japan left the fixed exchange rate in 1971 and is now valued at approximately 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Now let us develop the first reason: why the supply/demand changes? 1. Economic state – this is the most significant economic factor, which depends on the following sub-factors: the growth rate of the economy, changes in the tax system, unemployment and employment, economic condition and the level of stability of the country as a whole. 2. The relative interest rates – The change in relative interest rates is a prerequisite for a change in investors’ confidence in the currency. This may entail changes in the growth of confidence in a particular currency. 3. The demand and supply of capital, influencing the exchange rates. 4. Political changes – any instability in the country could significantly shake the price level, not only within the country but also around the world. 5. The market sentiment. 6. Natural factors. This includes any natural disasters and other natural phenomena, which have a significant impact on the global economy. I hope this was informative! Regards, Holborn Assets

There are two types of currency rates. One is fixed and the other is flexible. Under fixed exchange rate, the home currency is linked to internationally traded currencies like dollar, pound sterling or gold. The exchange rate is determined by the Monetary Authority of the country administratively. Whenever there is deviation from the internationl rate, the Authority intervenes in the market to protect currency stability. Under flexible exchange rate, domestic currency is market linked and exchange rate is determined by the demand for and supply of that particular currency. At present Indian rupee is market linked and RBI rarely intervenes in the marker to protect its stability. 615 Views · View Upvotes · Answer requested b

 

 

 

 

 

Search for questions, people, and topics Sign In Currency Exchange Rates Exchange Rates and Bureaux de Change Foreign Exchange Market Currencies Economics Where and how are exchange rates determined? 25 Answers Darrell Francis Darrell Francis, Economics BA, graduate-level work in monetary policy Written Feb 6, 2014 In the case of currencies with floating exchange rates, currency traders. Currency is constantly being bought and sold around the world and like any other product, the value is determined by supply and demand. When more people are trying to buy a certain currency, its value goes up, when more people try to sell it, its value goes down. For example, a couple of years ago, currency traders started buying a lot of Swiss francs. Switzerland is a small country, so it generally doesn’t print a lot of money and the demand become much greater than the supply. Therefore, those who were selling Swiss francs could ask for more in return, driving up the exchange rate. Between April and July 2012, the Swiss franc went from being 1.32 to 1 euro to 1.04 to 1 euro as currency traders wanted francs instead of euros. The Swiss National Bank finally responded by increasing its foreign currency reserves and stating that, no matter what, it would exchange Swiss francs at 1.20 to 1 euro. Because the Swiss National Bank is the largest supplier of Swiss francs, this forced all currency traders selling Swiss francs to lower their prices. This effectively placed the Swiss franc on a fixed exchange rate with the euro. When a fixed exchange rate is in place, the value of the currency doesn’t change according the market conditions. The government or central bank guarantees the value of the currency generally through foreign currency reserves. As in the case in Switzerland, the Swiss National Bank guaranteed that it had enough euros and francs that it could offer to buy and sell francs at 1.20 to 1 euro for the foreseeable future without exhausting its reserves. Sometimes this doesn’t work. Ukraine has for several years maintained an exchange rate of 8 hryvnia to 1 US dollar. However, due to long-term financial difficulties, Ukraine lacks the reserves to continue maintaining that exchange rate. To help decrease pressure on its reserves, the value of the hryvnia is now at 8.82 to 1 dollar and falling. In the past, countries would base the value of their currency on a commodity, most commonly gold, often using the Spanish dollar as the basic unit of value. However, overtime countries would revalue their currencies, switch between gold and silver standards, create fiat currencies, etc. For example, in 1871, The US dollar and the Japanese yen were approximately the same value. However, as Japan switched between the silver standard, gold standard, free-floating, and finally suffering massive inflation due to World War II, its value continuously declined until 1949 when was fixed at 360 yen to 1 US dollar. After a strong economic recovery, Japan left the fixed exchange rate in 1971 and is now valued at approximately 100 yen to 1 US dollar due to relatively high demand for the yen. 7.8k Views · View Upvotes Related QuestionsMore Answers Below What is foreign exchange rate? How are exchange rates determined on the ground? What determines foreign exchange rates? How is the foreign exchange rate determined between 2 countries, if one follows the flexible and the other follows the fixed exchange rate sys… What benchmarks are used to determine foreign exchange swap rates? Etienne Tatur Etienne Tatur, Helping expatriates through Moneytis Updated Apr 4 While there’s a lot of debate amongst economists (surprise, surprise) about what causes exchange rates to change, there is a consensus (according to Jason Van Bergen) that the following six factors are important: Inflation rates: generally, countries with lower inflation rates have higher-valued currencies Interest rates: higher interest rates often mean that investors get a better return in one country than another, and so sometimes push the value of a country’s currency up compared to low interest countries Current account deficits: a current account deficit means that a country is spending more on foreign trade (via imports) than it is earning (via exports), and so it will need to borrow from other countries to finance its deficit – and generally this means the value of its currency will decline Level of public debt: if a country is running very large budget deficits, and borrowing to cover this cost, you will often see high inflation, which in turn will often mean a lower currency valuation. Terms of trade: the terms of trade means the difference in the price of exports to the price of importants – a positive terms of trade means the prices a country gets for its exports is higher than the price it pays for its imports. Generally, the stronger the terms of trade, the stronger the currency, which has definitely been affecting the Aussie dollar in recent years Stability and economic growth: finally, the level of political stability, and whether an economy is growing at all, matter to investors. Stable, growing countries are lower risk, and therefore tend to have stronger currency valuations. The interesting part is when you want to predict the future, banks are doing it with their auto edge bot. But it seems interesting to also look at more customer oriented project such as the personal assista

 

4, 2015 There is no fixed formula for currency conversion .Market decide the rate of exchange for itself. In Earlier deades pegging sytem was used ,but now it is obsolete. Almost all naiton of world have floating exchange rates which are decided by following factors. 1. Differentials in Inflation Two countries will have different rate of Inflation .Country having lower rate of inflation will have rising currency , as Goods will be cheap people will have higher purchasing power .i.e. there will be demand for that currency . Contrary Country having Higher rate of inflation will have depriciating currency 2.Differentials in Interest Rates. Assume country X have 10% interest rate and country Y have 6 % interest rate. Now Investors of Country Y would want to invest in X as returns would be higher. Currency of country X will be high in demand (assuming sufficient countries have lower interest rate than X) ,hence Currency of X shoots up. 3. Current account deficit (CAD) It Balance of payment of a country to it’s trading Partners . This means Country is importing lot of goods and have lesser exports. To make payment for goods imported countries create demand for foreign currency , hence it ends up depriciating it’s own currency . 4. Public Debt. Suppose a country have large public debt X , it will attract less foreign investments. though Public Debt is internal affairs of X , but it carries risk of high inflation . In case X print currency to pay debts again ,but then increasing money supply increase inflation. Moreover, if a government is not able to service its deficit through domestic means (selling domestic bonds, increasing the money supply), then it must increase the supply of securities for sale to foreigners, thereby lowering their prices. Finally, a large debt may prove worrisome to foreigners if they believe the country risks defaulting on its obligations. Foreigners will be less willing to own securities denominated in that currency if the risk of default is great. For this reason, the country’s debt rating (as determined by Moody’s or standards and poor’s, for example) is a crucial determinant of its exchange rate. 5. Export and Import. Larger Exports create demand for currency while larger imports depreciates the currency . 6.Political Stability and Economic performance. Would you like to invest in war ridden gulf countries where there is no government , no policy and shattered economy . Or would you like to invest in nation having strong and stable long term government just like India Run by Modi’s NDA regime. More foreign investment means higher demand for currency because can u invest dollars in India . To invest in India You (as a foreigner ) are required to convert Dollar or other currency to Rupee. Hence more demand for rupee ,the stronger it becomes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

With most “commodities”, there are people posting amounts of the commodity (be it oil or dollars) to sell, and others bidding on them, a sort of restricted version of eBay. The average price at which qualified auctions for a currency are being completed is the official “exchange rate”. The more complex answer is that these markets are largely controlled and manipulated by governments, which attempt to distort the prices of various currencies for their own benefit. This distorts price signals, so that the true value of a given currency is usually not accurately reflected. 2.2k Views · View Upvotes

For example, in the exchange rate market for Euro/US Dollar, Individuals, Firms and Central Banks every day are constantly buying and selling Euros for USD and USD for Euros, establishing an exchange rate. Lets say the eurozone starts to collapse and market participants fear the potential dissolution of the euro currency. There will be a massive urge to sell euros and buy US Dollars, increasing the quantity supplied of Euros and the quantity demanded of USD. The exchange rate could change from something like 1.40USD/1 Euro to 1.30USD/1 Euro, a massive 10% depreciation of the Euro. 2.1k Views · View Upvotes

 

Please find below wonderful answers below for a more comprehensive guide. However, To put everything in layman’s terms, exchange rates are determined in the marketplace. The marketplace happens to be financial markets, more specifically the interbank foreign exchange markets, around the world. The major participants in these market are banks, which amongst other things, make money by providing a market for a currency which entails establishing a two way price at which they will purchase and sell one currency for the other. Like any whole seller they would like to purchase lower and seller higher, and they continuously do so to their customers which are usually other banks which may need one currency to offset their open exposures and facilitate international trade. As information flows in, economic data releases, these banks incorporate the information by changing their outlook on the currency. They buy the currency if they believe the price in undervalued and sell the currency if overvalued. Because not everyone has the same view, or because of information lag, the price of the currency fluctuates.

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Posted by: | November 28, 2016

Posted on: 2016 November 28
iphone-versus-samsung-mobile

iphone 7 vs samsung 7

iphone 7 vs samsung 7

 Design

S7

– larger S7 Edge model and the edges of the display curve around into the sides of the handset.

– Water and dust resistant designs but  S7 is the tougher phone,  it has an IP68 rating

– Samsung  S7  the 5.1ins display panel

-The Galaxy S7 is an AMOLED phone sporting a 1,440 x 2,560 resolution with a pixel density of 577ppi. – The Super AMOLED technology produces deep blacks, radiant tones, and pinpoint sharp pictures. It lacks the iPhone’s 3D Touch capability, but the site says everything else is superior – “it’s clear that one screen is much better than the other

 

IPhone7

-The latest iPhone has a similar appearance to the last one and is still a looker.

-Water and dust resistant designs, IP67 protection

-With a round, anodised aluminium casing that looks tidier than the one on the iPhone 6S, it’s exactly the same size and shape as its predecessor.

-The iPhone is marginally the smaller device  4.7ins display

-iPhone 7’s display has pressure-sensitive 3D Touch

-LCD Retina displays, with a resolution of 750 x 1334 and a pixel density of 326ppi on the iPhone 7

 

CAMERA

Samsumg 7

-12 megapixel main cameras with optical image stabilisation to combat shaky hands, and while Apple has made the aperture on its new device much wider to let in more light

-low light photography – the f/1.7

-front facing cameras too,  Galaxy S7’s is 5mp

IPhone7

-12 megapixel main cameras with optical image stabilisation to combat shaky hands, and while Apple has made the aperture on its new device much wider to let in more light

-iPhone 7 camera has a powerful quad LED True Tone flash, as well as a sensor that can compensate for flickers of artificial light – indoor shots and those taken in light-filled areas should produce crisp, clean image

-low light photography – the f/1.8

– front facing cameras too, though Apple has stepped up its game significantly – the selfie snapper on the iPhone 7 is a 7 megapixel sensor

 

BATTERY LIFE/PERFORMANCE

Samsung 7

– Samsung claims a 22-hour talk time for its top end smartphone.

– the battery is not removable.

– fingerprint scanners embedded in their home buttons and come equipped with NFC chips for Apple Pay and Android Pay abilities.

IPhone7

– iPhone gets an all-new chipset. Called the A10 Fusion, Apple claims that it’s 40 per cent faster than the A9

-The A10 is a quad core processor

-14 hours of talk time and about 40 hours of music.

STORAGE

Samsung7

-The Galaxy S7 can be bought with 32GB or 64GB, though there’s a Micro SD card slot that accepts memory cards up to 256GB in size.

IPhone7

-Apple’s new iPhone is offered with 32GB, 128GB, or 256GB of on board memory.

 

PRICES

Samsung7

-£569

IPhone7

– £599

VERDICT

From industry phone experts, samsung7 wins.

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Posted by: | November 26, 2016

Posted on: 2016 November 26
nigeria-stock-market

How to make Money on Stock

How to make Money on Stock

 

We are delving straight right in to it, we will show you what stock to buy to make real money.

1.You can make money by investing in  growth stock

The basic idea behind a growth stock is that you want to buy it when it’s not worth much and then sell it when it’s worth a lot (“buy low, sell high”)

A growth stock investment strategy attempts to find companies that are already experiencing high growth and are expected to continue to do so into the foreseeable future.

To investors eager to capitalize on this momentum, rapid growth means a fast and sustained increase in the stock price, which leads to a faster accumulation of wealth.

2.A safer way to make money on stocks is to invest in a company that pays dividendsbut the real advantages of these stocks are their stability and dividends. You can probably trust that McDonald’s, Dangote, Microsoft, MTN,   isn’t going to go out of business any time soon. Since the company makes enough money to reinvest and still have some leftover, it pays dividends.

In other words, the company pays you money for being an investor. Long-term investors have seen a good return, but if your goal was to make a quick buck—or if you couldn’t stomach that big dip—If you can’t handle the thought of a volatile stock price, don’t invest in growth companies.

3.Cheap isn’t always good, and expensive isn’t always bad. Sometimes a stock is cheap because its business is growing less or actually slowing down. And sometimes a stock is expensive because it’s widely expected to grow its earnings rapidly in the next few years. You want to buy stocks that you can reasonably expect will be worth more later, so look at value combined with expectations for future earnings.

4.Evaluate financial health by digging into the company’s financial reports. All public companies have to release quarterly and annual reports. Check the Investor Relations section of their web site, or find official reports filed with the SEC online here. Don’t just focus on the most recent report: What you’re really looking for is a consistent history of profitability and financial health, not just one good quarter.

5.Know how much debt the company has by check the company’s balance sheet. Generally speaking, the share price of a company with more debt is likely to be more volatile because more of the company’s income has to go to interest and debt payments. Compare a company to its peers to see if it’s borrowing an unusual amount of money for its industry and size.

6.Find the ETFs which track the performance of the industry you interested in and check out their holdings. This can be as easy as just searching for “Industry X ETF”; the official ETF page will disclose either all or only the top holdings of the fund.

7.Use a screener to filter stocks based on specific criteria such as sector and industry. Screeners offer users additional features such as sorting companies based on market cap, dividend yield and other useful investment metrics.

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Posted by: | November 23, 2016

Posted on: 2016 November 23