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Posted by: | December 11, 2016

Posted on: 2016 December 11

How exchnGE RATE IS DETERMINE

n the case of currencies with floating exchange rates, currency traders. Currency is constantly being bought and sold around the world and like any other product, the value is determined by supply and demand. When more people are trying to buy a certain currency, its value goes up, when more people try to sell it, its value goes down. For example, a couple of years ago, currency traders started buying a lot of Swiss francs. Switzerland is a small country, so it generally doesn’t print a lot of money and the demand become much greater than the supply. Therefore, those who were selling Swiss francs could ask for more in return, driving up the exchange rate. Between April and July 2012, the Swiss franc went from being 1.32 to 1 euro to 1.04 to 1 euro as currency traders wanted francs instead of euros. The Swiss National Bank finally responded by increasing its foreign currency reserves and stating that, no matter what, it would exchange Swiss francs at 1.20 to 1 euro. Because the Swiss National Bank is the largest supplier of Swiss francs, this forced all currency traders selling Swiss francs to lower their prices. This effectively placed the Swiss franc on a fixed exchange rate with the euro. When a fixed exchange rate is in place, the value of the currency doesn’t change according the market conditions. The government or central bank guarantees the value of the currency generally through foreign currency reserves. As in the case in Switzerland, the Swiss National Bank guaranteed that it had enough euros and francs that it could offer to buy and sell francs at 1.20 to 1 euro for the foreseeable future without exhausting its reserves. Sometimes this doesn’t work. Ukraine has for several years maintained an exchange rate of 8 hryvnia to 1 US dollar. However, due to long-term financial difficulties, Ukraine lacks the reserves to continue maintaining that exchange rate. To help decrease pressure on its reserves, the value of the hryvnia is now at 8.82 to 1 dollar and falling. In the past, countries would base the value of their currency on a commodity, most commonly gold, often using the Spanish dollar as the basic unit of value. However, overtime countries would revalue their currencies, switch between gold and silver standards, create fiat currencies, etc. For example, in 1871, The US dollar and the Japanese yen were approximately the same value. However, as Japan switched between the silver standard, gold standard, free-floating, and finally suffering massive inflation due to World War II, its value continuously declined until 1949 when was fixed at 360 yen to 1 US dollar. After a strong economic recovery, Japan left the fixed exchange rate in 1971 and is now valued at approximately 1

n the case of currencies with floating exchange rates, currency traders. Currency is constantly being bought and sold around the world and like any other product, the value is determined by supply and demand. When more people are trying to buy a certain currency, its value goes up, when more people try to sell it, its value goes down. For example, a couple of years ago, currency traders started buying a lot of Swiss francs. Switzerland is a small country, so it generally doesn’t print a lot of money and the demand become much greater than the supply. Therefore, those who were selling Swiss francs could ask for more in return, driving up the exchange rate. Between April and July 2012, the Swiss franc went from being 1.32 to 1 euro to 1.04 to 1 euro as currency traders wanted francs instead of euros. The Swiss National Bank finally responded by increasing its foreign currency reserves and stating that, no matter what, it would exchange Swiss francs at 1.20 to 1 euro. Because the Swiss National Bank is the largest supplier of Swiss francs, this forced all currency traders selling Swiss francs to lower their prices. This effectively placed the Swiss franc on a fixed exchange rate with the euro. When a fixed exchange rate is in place, the value of the currency doesn’t change according the market conditions. The government or central bank guarantees the value of the currency generally through foreign currency reserves. As in the case in Switzerland, the Swiss National Bank guaranteed that it had enough euros and francs that it could offer to buy and sell francs at 1.20 to 1 euro for the foreseeable future without exhausting its reserves. Sometimes this doesn’t work. Ukraine has for several years maintained an exchange rate of 8 hryvnia to 1 US dollar. However, due to long-term financial difficulties, Ukraine lacks the reserves to continue maintaining that exchange rate. To help decrease pressure on its reserves, the value of the hryvnia is now at 8.82 to 1 dollar and falling. In the past, countries would base the value of their currency on a commodity, most commonly gold, often using the Spanish dollar as the basic unit of value. However, overtime countries would revalue their currencies, switch between gold and silver standards, create fiat currencies, etc. For example, in 1871, The US dollar and the Japanese yen were approximately the same value. However, as Japan switched between the silver standard, gold standard, free-floating, and finally suffering massive inflation due to World War II, its value continuously declined until 1949 when was fixed at 360 yen to 1 US dollar. After a strong economic recovery, Japan left the fixed exchange rate in 1971 and is now valued at approximately 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Now let us develop the first reason: why the supply/demand changes? 1. Economic state – this is the most significant economic factor, which depends on the following sub-factors: the growth rate of the economy, changes in the tax system, unemployment and employment, economic condition and the level of stability of the country as a whole. 2. The relative interest rates – The change in relative interest rates is a prerequisite for a change in investors’ confidence in the currency. This may entail changes in the growth of confidence in a particular currency. 3. The demand and supply of capital, influencing the exchange rates. 4. Political changes – any instability in the country could significantly shake the price level, not only within the country but also around the world. 5. The market sentiment. 6. Natural factors. This includes any natural disasters and other natural phenomena, which have a significant impact on the global economy. I hope this was informative! Regards, Holborn Assets

There are two types of currency rates. One is fixed and the other is flexible. Under fixed exchange rate, the home currency is linked to internationally traded currencies like dollar, pound sterling or gold. The exchange rate is determined by the Monetary Authority of the country administratively. Whenever there is deviation from the internationl rate, the Authority intervenes in the market to protect currency stability. Under flexible exchange rate, domestic currency is market linked and exchange rate is determined by the demand for and supply of that particular currency. At present Indian rupee is market linked and RBI rarely intervenes in the marker to protect its stability. 615 Views · View Upvotes · Answer requested b

 

 

 

 

 

Search for questions, people, and topics Sign In Currency Exchange Rates Exchange Rates and Bureaux de Change Foreign Exchange Market Currencies Economics Where and how are exchange rates determined? 25 Answers Darrell Francis Darrell Francis, Economics BA, graduate-level work in monetary policy Written Feb 6, 2014 In the case of currencies with floating exchange rates, currency traders. Currency is constantly being bought and sold around the world and like any other product, the value is determined by supply and demand. When more people are trying to buy a certain currency, its value goes up, when more people try to sell it, its value goes down. For example, a couple of years ago, currency traders started buying a lot of Swiss francs. Switzerland is a small country, so it generally doesn’t print a lot of money and the demand become much greater than the supply. Therefore, those who were selling Swiss francs could ask for more in return, driving up the exchange rate. Between April and July 2012, the Swiss franc went from being 1.32 to 1 euro to 1.04 to 1 euro as currency traders wanted francs instead of euros. The Swiss National Bank finally responded by increasing its foreign currency reserves and stating that, no matter what, it would exchange Swiss francs at 1.20 to 1 euro. Because the Swiss National Bank is the largest supplier of Swiss francs, this forced all currency traders selling Swiss francs to lower their prices. This effectively placed the Swiss franc on a fixed exchange rate with the euro. When a fixed exchange rate is in place, the value of the currency doesn’t change according the market conditions. The government or central bank guarantees the value of the currency generally through foreign currency reserves. As in the case in Switzerland, the Swiss National Bank guaranteed that it had enough euros and francs that it could offer to buy and sell francs at 1.20 to 1 euro for the foreseeable future without exhausting its reserves. Sometimes this doesn’t work. Ukraine has for several years maintained an exchange rate of 8 hryvnia to 1 US dollar. However, due to long-term financial difficulties, Ukraine lacks the reserves to continue maintaining that exchange rate. To help decrease pressure on its reserves, the value of the hryvnia is now at 8.82 to 1 dollar and falling. In the past, countries would base the value of their currency on a commodity, most commonly gold, often using the Spanish dollar as the basic unit of value. However, overtime countries would revalue their currencies, switch between gold and silver standards, create fiat currencies, etc. For example, in 1871, The US dollar and the Japanese yen were approximately the same value. However, as Japan switched between the silver standard, gold standard, free-floating, and finally suffering massive inflation due to World War II, its value continuously declined until 1949 when was fixed at 360 yen to 1 US dollar. After a strong economic recovery, Japan left the fixed exchange rate in 1971 and is now valued at approximately 100 yen to 1 US dollar due to relatively high demand for the yen. 7.8k Views · View Upvotes Related QuestionsMore Answers Below What is foreign exchange rate? How are exchange rates determined on the ground? What determines foreign exchange rates? How is the foreign exchange rate determined between 2 countries, if one follows the flexible and the other follows the fixed exchange rate sys… What benchmarks are used to determine foreign exchange swap rates? Etienne Tatur Etienne Tatur, Helping expatriates through Moneytis Updated Apr 4 While there’s a lot of debate amongst economists (surprise, surprise) about what causes exchange rates to change, there is a consensus (according to Jason Van Bergen) that the following six factors are important: Inflation rates: generally, countries with lower inflation rates have higher-valued currencies Interest rates: higher interest rates often mean that investors get a better return in one country than another, and so sometimes push the value of a country’s currency up compared to low interest countries Current account deficits: a current account deficit means that a country is spending more on foreign trade (via imports) than it is earning (via exports), and so it will need to borrow from other countries to finance its deficit – and generally this means the value of its currency will decline Level of public debt: if a country is running very large budget deficits, and borrowing to cover this cost, you will often see high inflation, which in turn will often mean a lower currency valuation. Terms of trade: the terms of trade means the difference in the price of exports to the price of importants – a positive terms of trade means the prices a country gets for its exports is higher than the price it pays for its imports. Generally, the stronger the terms of trade, the stronger the currency, which has definitely been affecting the Aussie dollar in recent years Stability and economic growth: finally, the level of political stability, and whether an economy is growing at all, matter to investors. Stable, growing countries are lower risk, and therefore tend to have stronger currency valuations. The interesting part is when you want to predict the future, banks are doing it with their auto edge bot. But it seems interesting to also look at more customer oriented project such as the personal assista

 

4, 2015 There is no fixed formula for currency conversion .Market decide the rate of exchange for itself. In Earlier deades pegging sytem was used ,but now it is obsolete. Almost all naiton of world have floating exchange rates which are decided by following factors. 1. Differentials in Inflation Two countries will have different rate of Inflation .Country having lower rate of inflation will have rising currency , as Goods will be cheap people will have higher purchasing power .i.e. there will be demand for that currency . Contrary Country having Higher rate of inflation will have depriciating currency 2.Differentials in Interest Rates. Assume country X have 10% interest rate and country Y have 6 % interest rate. Now Investors of Country Y would want to invest in X as returns would be higher. Currency of country X will be high in demand (assuming sufficient countries have lower interest rate than X) ,hence Currency of X shoots up. 3. Current account deficit (CAD) It Balance of payment of a country to it’s trading Partners . This means Country is importing lot of goods and have lesser exports. To make payment for goods imported countries create demand for foreign currency , hence it ends up depriciating it’s own currency . 4. Public Debt. Suppose a country have large public debt X , it will attract less foreign investments. though Public Debt is internal affairs of X , but it carries risk of high inflation . In case X print currency to pay debts again ,but then increasing money supply increase inflation. Moreover, if a government is not able to service its deficit through domestic means (selling domestic bonds, increasing the money supply), then it must increase the supply of securities for sale to foreigners, thereby lowering their prices. Finally, a large debt may prove worrisome to foreigners if they believe the country risks defaulting on its obligations. Foreigners will be less willing to own securities denominated in that currency if the risk of default is great. For this reason, the country’s debt rating (as determined by Moody’s or standards and poor’s, for example) is a crucial determinant of its exchange rate. 5. Export and Import. Larger Exports create demand for currency while larger imports depreciates the currency . 6.Political Stability and Economic performance. Would you like to invest in war ridden gulf countries where there is no government , no policy and shattered economy . Or would you like to invest in nation having strong and stable long term government just like India Run by Modi’s NDA regime. More foreign investment means higher demand for currency because can u invest dollars in India . To invest in India You (as a foreigner ) are required to convert Dollar or other currency to Rupee. Hence more demand for rupee ,the stronger it becomes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

With most “commodities”, there are people posting amounts of the commodity (be it oil or dollars) to sell, and others bidding on them, a sort of restricted version of eBay. The average price at which qualified auctions for a currency are being completed is the official “exchange rate”. The more complex answer is that these markets are largely controlled and manipulated by governments, which attempt to distort the prices of various currencies for their own benefit. This distorts price signals, so that the true value of a given currency is usually not accurately reflected. 2.2k Views · View Upvotes

For example, in the exchange rate market for Euro/US Dollar, Individuals, Firms and Central Banks every day are constantly buying and selling Euros for USD and USD for Euros, establishing an exchange rate. Lets say the eurozone starts to collapse and market participants fear the potential dissolution of the euro currency. There will be a massive urge to sell euros and buy US Dollars, increasing the quantity supplied of Euros and the quantity demanded of USD. The exchange rate could change from something like 1.40USD/1 Euro to 1.30USD/1 Euro, a massive 10% depreciation of the Euro. 2.1k Views · View Upvotes

 

Please find below wonderful answers below for a more comprehensive guide. However, To put everything in layman’s terms, exchange rates are determined in the marketplace. The marketplace happens to be financial markets, more specifically the interbank foreign exchange markets, around the world. The major participants in these market are banks, which amongst other things, make money by providing a market for a currency which entails establishing a two way price at which they will purchase and sell one currency for the other. Like any whole seller they would like to purchase lower and seller higher, and they continuously do so to their customers which are usually other banks which may need one currency to offset their open exposures and facilitate international trade. As information flows in, economic data releases, these banks incorporate the information by changing their outlook on the currency. They buy the currency if they believe the price in undervalued and sell the currency if overvalued. Because not everyone has the same view, or because of information lag, the price of the currency fluctuates.

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Posted by: | November 28, 2016

Posted on: 2016 November 28
iphone-versus-samsung-mobile

iphone 7 vs samsung 7

iphone 7 vs samsung 7

 Design

S7

– larger S7 Edge model and the edges of the display curve around into the sides of the handset.

– Water and dust resistant designs but  S7 is the tougher phone,  it has an IP68 rating

– Samsung  S7  the 5.1ins display panel

-The Galaxy S7 is an AMOLED phone sporting a 1,440 x 2,560 resolution with a pixel density of 577ppi. – The Super AMOLED technology produces deep blacks, radiant tones, and pinpoint sharp pictures. It lacks the iPhone’s 3D Touch capability, but the site says everything else is superior – “it’s clear that one screen is much better than the other

 

IPhone7

-The latest iPhone has a similar appearance to the last one and is still a looker.

-Water and dust resistant designs, IP67 protection

-With a round, anodised aluminium casing that looks tidier than the one on the iPhone 6S, it’s exactly the same size and shape as its predecessor.

-The iPhone is marginally the smaller device  4.7ins display

-iPhone 7’s display has pressure-sensitive 3D Touch

-LCD Retina displays, with a resolution of 750 x 1334 and a pixel density of 326ppi on the iPhone 7

 

CAMERA

Samsumg 7

-12 megapixel main cameras with optical image stabilisation to combat shaky hands, and while Apple has made the aperture on its new device much wider to let in more light

-low light photography – the f/1.7

-front facing cameras too,  Galaxy S7’s is 5mp

IPhone7

-12 megapixel main cameras with optical image stabilisation to combat shaky hands, and while Apple has made the aperture on its new device much wider to let in more light

-iPhone 7 camera has a powerful quad LED True Tone flash, as well as a sensor that can compensate for flickers of artificial light – indoor shots and those taken in light-filled areas should produce crisp, clean image

-low light photography – the f/1.8

– front facing cameras too, though Apple has stepped up its game significantly – the selfie snapper on the iPhone 7 is a 7 megapixel sensor

 

BATTERY LIFE/PERFORMANCE

Samsung 7

– Samsung claims a 22-hour talk time for its top end smartphone.

– the battery is not removable.

– fingerprint scanners embedded in their home buttons and come equipped with NFC chips for Apple Pay and Android Pay abilities.

IPhone7

– iPhone gets an all-new chipset. Called the A10 Fusion, Apple claims that it’s 40 per cent faster than the A9

-The A10 is a quad core processor

-14 hours of talk time and about 40 hours of music.

STORAGE

Samsung7

-The Galaxy S7 can be bought with 32GB or 64GB, though there’s a Micro SD card slot that accepts memory cards up to 256GB in size.

IPhone7

-Apple’s new iPhone is offered with 32GB, 128GB, or 256GB of on board memory.

 

PRICES

Samsung7

-£569

IPhone7

– £599

VERDICT

From industry phone experts, samsung7 wins.

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Posted by: | November 26, 2016

Posted on: 2016 November 26
nigeria-stock-market

How to make Money on Stock

How to make Money on Stock

 

We are delving straight right in to it, we will show you what stock to buy to make real money.

1.You can make money by investing in  growth stock

The basic idea behind a growth stock is that you want to buy it when it’s not worth much and then sell it when it’s worth a lot (“buy low, sell high”)

A growth stock investment strategy attempts to find companies that are already experiencing high growth and are expected to continue to do so into the foreseeable future.

To investors eager to capitalize on this momentum, rapid growth means a fast and sustained increase in the stock price, which leads to a faster accumulation of wealth.

2.A safer way to make money on stocks is to invest in a company that pays dividendsbut the real advantages of these stocks are their stability and dividends. You can probably trust that McDonald’s, Dangote, Microsoft, MTN,   isn’t going to go out of business any time soon. Since the company makes enough money to reinvest and still have some leftover, it pays dividends.

In other words, the company pays you money for being an investor. Long-term investors have seen a good return, but if your goal was to make a quick buck—or if you couldn’t stomach that big dip—If you can’t handle the thought of a volatile stock price, don’t invest in growth companies.

3.Cheap isn’t always good, and expensive isn’t always bad. Sometimes a stock is cheap because its business is growing less or actually slowing down. And sometimes a stock is expensive because it’s widely expected to grow its earnings rapidly in the next few years. You want to buy stocks that you can reasonably expect will be worth more later, so look at value combined with expectations for future earnings.

4.Evaluate financial health by digging into the company’s financial reports. All public companies have to release quarterly and annual reports. Check the Investor Relations section of their web site, or find official reports filed with the SEC online here. Don’t just focus on the most recent report: What you’re really looking for is a consistent history of profitability and financial health, not just one good quarter.

5.Know how much debt the company has by check the company’s balance sheet. Generally speaking, the share price of a company with more debt is likely to be more volatile because more of the company’s income has to go to interest and debt payments. Compare a company to its peers to see if it’s borrowing an unusual amount of money for its industry and size.

6.Find the ETFs which track the performance of the industry you interested in and check out their holdings. This can be as easy as just searching for “Industry X ETF”; the official ETF page will disclose either all or only the top holdings of the fund.

7.Use a screener to filter stocks based on specific criteria such as sector and industry. Screeners offer users additional features such as sorting companies based on market cap, dividend yield and other useful investment metrics.

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Posted by: | November 23, 2016

Posted on: 2016 November 23

How to buy a car

Want to buy a Car? Things to look out for when you test drive a new car October 19, 2016Often, when people buy cars, especially used cars, they are told to test drive it before making the purchase -which is the proper thing to do. However, time and again, while actually abiding by the advice to test drive; many people do not know what to look out for when test driving a used car especially. As more people take to buying used cars in our society today, it has become important to share our knowledge on the vital things to look out for. This way, you are sure to get the best deal, not just in terms of price but also quality. First things first: When you turn on the car, confirm if all the images on the dashboard are lit up before they go off – as they should. The reason is to detect any fraudulent masking of the vital warning signs of the car by the seller. At this point, it is okay to flag any irregularities and demand satisfactory answers. Are there any obvious vibrations when the car engine has been cranked and is running at idle? If there are any, it means that there’s something wrong and you need get answers from the seller Then: There is something called the death rattle, I will tell you about it. This usually occurs when there is a rapping, tapping or banging sound coming out of the engine when it is turned on and running, especially if it is cold. In this situation, you should check the tailpipe and ensure that the exhaust isn’t blue or black or even smell of antifreeze. Check the oil and flee if the colour is creamy-white as it is usually indicative of an internal coolant leak. Go for a drive: This is the ultimate test of the strength and dexterity of the car be it Mercedes, Toyota, Honda etc. Ramp it up- accelerate quickly, break sharply and take sharp corners- and while at it, be very observant. Is the car quivering? That is indicative of a bad alignment, control arms, bushings, tie rods – a rod that acts as a tie in the steering gear of a motor vehicle – or something else even more critical. Try breaking hard. Does it feel spongy, as in lacking firmness? It could mean bleeding brakes while stiffness points to a bad brake booster. A shuddering pedal underneath your foot equals to a need for new rotors. Also, try overtaking if you are on a dual carriageway to confirm that the car has good acceleration and also detect any issues. If the car is an automatic observe if jolts into gear when you accelerate evenly. This could spell a transmission error and you should flee. Transmission errors are not known to be easily fixed even by the best mechanics. Watch out for oil pressure, battery and temperature gauge too. Ideally, a short drive would not trigger any issues but if it does, run! What are some of the things you have considered while test driving a car in the past? Leave us a comment! Efritin is a leading marketplace where you can buy and sell everything. We have the largest selection of used cars. Click here to get the best deal for your next car.

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Posted by: | November 22, 2016

Posted on: 2016 November 22
nigeria-import-china

How to Import From China

 

Nigerians Importing From China

 

Thinking of importing from China, below is a step by step guide  of some of the processes.

– Find Supplier

– Negotiate

– After agreement, shipping your items to Nigeria  could pose a daunting task for a first timer.

 

Actually you need to understand what you agreeing to, because they are different types of shipping.

Okay, let’s start with the basics. When dealing with suppliers from China, you’ll often be offered 4 types of pricing:

FOB – Free on Board (or Freight on Board). This basically means that the cost of delivering the goods to the nearest port is included but YOU, as the buyer, are responsible for the shipping from there and all other fees associated with getting the goods to your country/address.

EXW (Ex-Works) – also sometimes referred to as the Ex-Factory price. This basically means the cost of the product and nothing else! No shipping costs or export fees in China are included in this price, never mind local port and custom fees or delivery to your door.

CIF – Cost, Insurance and Freight. In this case, the price also includes sea freight charges and insurance to deliver the goods to YOUR nearest port. But only to the port – from that point onwards, you take the shipment into your hands.

CNF – Cost & Freight (or Cost, no Insurance, Freight). Similar to CIF only this time insurance is not included.

If your supplier quoted you a CNF Nigeria  price, this means that the price includes shipping of the goods via sea freight to Nigeria port. When the goods arrive, you’ll have to organise customs clearance and delivery to your home/office/warehouse.

While the CNF price can look very attractive, keep in mind that there will be other costs involved when your goods arrive in Nigeria, such as:

Customs clearance fee
Value Added Tax
Import Duty
Port security charge
Fuel surcharge
Docking charge
Warehouse storage fee
Etc.
So the CNF price is really just the tip of the iceberg and does not show you the true, FINAL price you’ll pay for the products you’re importing.

Also, as you’re new to importing, it will take extra time and be a lot of hassle for you to organise everything at Nigeria port.

If your supplier quoted you an Ex-Works price, this means that there will be LOTS of hidden charges in China + the actual freight charge + all the additional charges I already covered under CNF. This really is NOT the way to do business! You’ll never know for sure how much your import will cost in total, so please NEVER deal with Ex-Works prices!!!

A much better alternative to CNF, FOB, CIF and Ex-Works is to use a freight forwarding agent for your shipments from China. These companies will take care of EVERYTHING mentioned above and will deliver the goods to your door without you having to mess around with the customs clearance procedure.

You usually receive an invoice from them once your goods have arrived with all taxes, customs & port fees clearly listed.

I highly recommend you use such a company, at least for your first few importing deals. These freight forwarding companies are very affordable and can actually work out cheaper than if you try to do it all on your own.

My recommendation is to use  a freight forwarder with great customer service, weekly shipments from China and very competitive prices. Get in touch with them to find out exactly how much your order will cost delivered to your door, after all the fees and taxes.

When contacting a freight forwarding company, make sure you ask for a Door to Door price. This is very important as otherwise you can end up with a host of additional charges when your goods arrive in the Nigeria.

So just keep it safe and play by the rules!

To sum it up – when you deal with suppliers in China, ALWAYS ask for a FOB price! This means product’s cost + local charges in China to the nearest port.

Ask your supplier for order dimensions (weight & size) and contact a freight forwarder for a door to door quote. Lastly – don’t forget about insurance! It  will protect your shipment against loss and damage.

 

You can contact some Nigeria import and export companies for more information.

This is just a guide, you should do  your own homework.  We are not responsible for any liabilities for any los for anyone using this article as a guide.

 

 

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Posted by: | November 22, 2016

Posted on: 2016 November 22
nigeria roofing sheets lagos state

Roofing Sheet Buying Guide – View Prices in Nigeria

Roofing Sheet Buying Guide – View Prices in Nigeria

Aluminium roofing sheets is the preferred choice for many home builders for many reason. Status symbol and its quality. The problem of corrosion and leakage associated with zinc roofing sheets is solved with  aluminium.

Aluminium roofing sheet comes in two categories. There is the long span corrugated aluminium roofing sheet and the step tile aluminium roofing sheet. The unique features of the roofing sheet are its diverse colours, textures and thickness. The common colours are red, blue, yellow, green, chocolate and brown.

There is also the polycarbonate roofing sheet, which experts explain has the ability to withstand any change in environment and temperature.

Unlike zinc roofing sheet which is the common feature of houses in many ancient towns in Nigeria, aluminium sheets have become the new roofing trend in many states in Nigeria. Abuja, Lagos, Portharcourt and the other major big cities.

All the three major types of roofing sheets currently in use in the country have their respective merits. The metal sheet, known as the zinc, is the most common sheet and the oldest still in the market. Apart from its comparable low cost, it is strong and has the ability to withstand heat and weight.

Like zinc, asbestos Roofing Sheet is relatively cheap. But what has endeared it to many home owners is its ability to absorb heat and resist corrosion. However, environmentalists insist it is not environmental friendly. Asbestos is banned in many western countries due to health and environmental issue associated with it

In the case of aluminium long span sheet, its primary benefits include beauty, strength, durability and resistance to rust and corrosion.

But Aluminium Roofing sheet is not cheap, it comes at a high cost.  The cost of fitting Aluminium roofing sheet by experts is also high. After paying that much, you don’t want unskilled  roofing contractor  setting up your Roof.  be warned, If not done properly, homeowners can still experience leakage associated with Zinc roofing sheet.

Although aluminum sheets are the latest in roofing technology, asbestos and zinc are still in high demand by those who cannot afford aluminium.

Performance

The performance of a roof is measured based on its life span and it’s effectiveness to retain their strength, chemical and physical properties, appearance and resistance to all forms of failure.

Roofing Failures

Most roof failures occur at bolted connections that were either inadequately secured at the time of construction or that have since failed due to deterioration. Some roof designers often fail to take into account a number of design factors such as tolerance and factors of safety and these could result in roof failure. Other factors that could cause failure in roofs are the effects of wind and fire, poor workmanship, age, poor maintenance, height of the building and the use of cheap and substandard materials.The consequences of roof failures are usually devastating to the extent that they sometimes claim lives, and valuable property and possessions can be destroyed.

The most common material used for roof trusses is wood. It is relatively cheap and readily available, and easily worked. These qualities give wood trusses an edge over iron for small- to medium-sized buildings but in larger ones such as industrial buildings, steel trusses are used to provide stability against increased wind loads due to the height of these buildings. .

Alminium Roofing are available in  many different colours, has a very pleasing and distinct appearance, it’s durable, has long span life, no maintenance required, it’s corrosion resistant, it’s not only used for Roofing but also for cladding and flashings. it’s economical to building construction due to it’s light weight, length are tailor made to specifications.

Any questions, do get in touch

NIGERIA ROOFING SHEET PRICES -Bulk purchase may attract discount.

 

FOR LATEST PRICES – SPEAK  TO US ON LIVE CHAT 

 

Available Design
————————-
Classic – N

Bond – N

Shingle –  N

Roman – N

Ridge cap – N

B.B.C –  N

fascia board – N

treated nails – N

sealant- N

Available Colours
—————————-

Charcoal black

Coffee brown

Chocolate

Bush Green

Wine

Wine with black patches

Black with white patches

Coffee brown with black patches

Available Guage
————————–
0.55mm

0.45mm

 

Aluminum  Long Span per square meter

 0.55 mm thickness  – N

  0.45 mm thickness  – N

 

Aluminium Step Tile – 

Aluminiun Stone Coated

0.45     – N

0.55     – N

Shingle 0.45mm – 

Shingle 0.55M – 

 

Use our Roofing Sheet Calculator App 

 

To Buy Ring  the Warehouse

08120009791
09053656044
2,Prince ade odofin Street, United Estate
Sangotedo, lekki ajah Lagos.

FREE DELIVERY within Lekki

Outside Lekki – Attracts transport charges

 

 

nigeria roofing sheet

nigeria roofing sheet

lagos roofing sheets prices

lagos roofing sheets prices

 

 

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Posted by: | November 21, 2016

Posted on: 2016 November 21
nigeria-top-selling-export-products

Top Products to export from nigeria

Top Products  to export from Nigeria
1. Ginger

2. Palm Kernel Oil
This is the oil extracted from the pulp of palm fruit which is different from palm oil. Palm Kernel Oil is used for the manufacturing of various cosmetics, pharmaceutical products and confectioneries. The uses of this oil is broad and the mineral contents are said to be rich in protein for various uses. Nigeria has it quantum and makes dollars exporting it to other countries of the world.

3. Textiles and Garments
This industry alone generates close to $32bn as revenue from export from Nigeria. It is also a fact that unlike other products that battles with high strict rules of tests, Nigeria’s textiles enjoy duty free passage into United States where it has the largest markets in the world because of its unique designs, ethnic African designs and quality.

4. Cocoa Butter
This is the real sources of chocolates of all types. The fruits of Cocoa is the end products of various skin care products, health products, and pharmaceutical products. The demands of Cocoa is very high in both America and UK and that is why cocoa farming is very essential on its own.

5. Gallstone
This is a clay-like solid substance gotten from gallbladder of matured cow and oxen. The size could be as big as chicken egg, it’s a hotcake for foreign pharmaceuticals because they use it for medical purposes. If one could lay his hand a good quantity of well dried gallstone about 100g that is well packaged, ready buyers are waiting for it at either Asian or American markets to give you dollars.

6. Rubber
Nigeria has put in place some proper Central Testing Laboratories to ensure that only certified products leave the country for Europe and America which are in dire needs of the product. Nigeria happens to be a significant producer of Rubber. A cubit meter of fine quality rubber goes for between $400 and $600 presently because of the instability of dollar rate in the market.

7. Sesame Seed
This may sound a bit strange if you are not from the area where it is produced in the country like Benue and Jigawa states in Nigeria. This product ranks second to cocoa in terms of export volumes and foreign exchange earnings. Nigeria is the 5th largest producer of this commodity and shipping it into foreign countries brings dollars exchange.

8. Honey
Pure honey is another export commodity from Nigeria to other countries. Presently, a kilogram of honey costs above $150 in the international markets. Pure natural honey contains well trace enzymes as sugar, mineral, vitamins and amino acids. A litre of honey can fetch good dollars in the foreign market.

9. Shrimps
The Niger Delta region in Nigeria is blessed with rich organic deposits of Shrimps. The demands of Shrimps is high in countries like Portugal, France, Belgium, Spain, Europe and USA.

10. Garlic
Garlic is a cash crop which is grown under irrigation by farmers in the Savanna areas in Nigeria. With internationally certified good quantities of garlic, you are sure of foreign hard currencies.

 

11. Yam Tubers
Nigeria is presently the highest producers of yam. In 2009 alone, yam export accounted for about US$450 million exchange. But due to low quality it’s saddening to know that the country is not maximizing its export potentials of this products. So there is need for prospective exporters of yam to foreign countries to adhere to quality regulations that is guarding the process. Yam farmers must take this into consideration and tap from this opportunity.

12. Charcoal
This is at the fore front in the international market. This product which is produced in good quantity in Nigeria with now perfected technology, has about 50% ROI.Even an individual can own a charcoal production outfit and have exporters shipping it for him. A large market for charcoal exists in ASIA, EU, and USA. A tone of this product goes for about $1000.

13. Cotton
This sector recently received a boost from the National Cotton Association of Nigeria (NACOTAN) of N33 million to rehabilitate it. Cotton is the most natural sources of fiber and is demanded internationally.

14. Cassava Flour
Already we know that Cassava is food for all in Nigeria because of various methods of preparing it. There is need for this in the foreign markets as the demands of well processed cassava flour is increasing both in Europe, Middle East and in America.

15. Cashew Nuts
Almost every part of the country has the potential to produce this international commodity. Great quantity of unprocessed raw cashew nuts are exported to India, Brazil and Vietnam where they are processed into kernels and moved to the Northern America and Europe where they are sold for about $2 per pound. The demands are on increase for the consuming countries.

16. Snail
If you can produce snails in good quantity, there is a ready market for you. Snails are hotcake in European Countries and America. The good thing about this is that it is very easy to rear as it produces rapidly with close to nothing in expenditures for feeding.

17. Chili Pepper
Nigeria is blessed with good weather which supports the proper growths and production of this internationally accepted pepper. If you can grow and source for the export opportunities, you are sure to get it.

18. Fruit Juice
It may sound somewhat strange to the hearing of many that Nigeria provide export opportunity for fruit juice concentrates. Yes, we have it because Nigeria can boast of so many naturally grown fruits all over the country which provides the best of fruit juice productions of great quantities. The opportunity for Nigerian fruits export is huge in USA.

19. Poultry
Forget about the facts that some greedy Nigerians go about smuggling chicken into the country. When we talk about poultry, it involves all domestic birds, egg or meat.

Nigeria poultry farm products are still highly needed both within Africa and Western countries because Nigerian weather conditions for poultry farming still remains the best compared to other countries. Poultry products export from Nigeria is an avenue that is still highly untapped.

20. Cosmetics and Soap
Nigeria has grown in this very important area but the only challenge that is holding us back is procurement of good technology to produce this in great quantity to compete favorably with other developed countries.

Soap making, which extends to other toiletries, laundries and so on are already export opportunity waiting to be invested heavily in.

 

21. Cotton

Cotton is the most important natural fiber of the 20th century. The efforts of the Federal Government of Nigeria towards the development of the nation’s cotton sector received a boost recently, as the National Cotton Association of Nigeria (NACOTAN) got a lifeline of N33 million to enable the sector bounce back to life.

22. Snail
Nigerian snails are in high demands in America and Europeans Countries. The only thing the snails may constantly demand from you is your attention and care but they hardly fall sick.

You don’t have to buy their food and you may not have to spend much to create an abode for them. The beauty of it all is that the snails reproduce rapidly. They are capable of producing hundreds of eggs, which hatch into snails. It is now possible to produce 1,000,000 snails worth more than N5 million twice a year.

23. Leather and Footwear
Presently the world footwear and leather products sector is moving from high-cost industrialized countries to developing countries and many developing countries (Nigeria inclusive) have strong potentials in this sector regarding raw material and human resources, but have mainly remained suppliers of raw and semi-finished products.

The raw materials for leather and its products are mainly from livestock, and Nigeria is endowed with the third largest livestock population in Africa. Raw materials availability has been acknowledged as a basic comparative advantage towards the export of leather and leather products.

24.

MINERALS FROM NIGERIA

Cassaiterite
Columbite
Gelena
Gold
Iron-ore”
Ilemmite
Lead-Zinc
Manganese
Moleybdenite
Asbestos
Limestone
Coal
Lignite
Emerald
Aquamarine
Ruby
Sapphire
Granite
Marble

 

 

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Posted by: | November 20, 2016

Posted on: 2016 November 20