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Why Multivitamins Might Do More Harm Than Good
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If you’re anything like me, taking vitamins was a part of your daily routine as a kid. At the time, I cared more about which flavor Flintstone chewable I got than the nutritional info behind the pill-sized likeness of Barney, Fred, or Wilma.
As I outgrew my beloved Flintstone chewables, I stopped taking a daily multivitamin in high school and college. But by the time I got to graduate school, I started to think more about my health and wondered if I should begin taking vitamin supplements again. As a PhD student in molecular biology, I have a habit of reading scientific studies in my spare time, so I started researching vitamin supplements to determine which ones were worth adding to my very tight budget.
I was surprised by what I found. Nutrition research can be a contentious field, with experts arguing about what’s really good for you. (Is coffee shaving years off your life or giving you a health boost?) But across the board, peer-reviewed, placebo-controlled scientific studies have consistently shown that vitamin supplements don’t prevent disease. And, in some cases, they might increase your risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and mortality.
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Researchers, such as Regan Bailey at the National Institutes of Health, are unsure where Americans get the idea that they should take a daily multivitamin for better health. “It’s not from the doctors,” says Bailey, a nutritional epidemiologist in the NIH’s Office of Dietary Supplements. “The majority of scientific data available does not support the role of dietary supplements for improving health or preventing disease.”
And yet, half of Americans today regularly take vitamin supplements. Half. Besides the obvious role of marketing, why do so many of us allow ourselves to believe that vitamins are good for us with little proof? Have we become a society that believes we can correct an unhealthy lifestyle with a daily pill?
The Need for Vitamins
When I use the term vitamin here, I’m referring to chemical compounds with the word “vitamin” in front—such as vitamin A, which helps maintain good vision—but also things like calcium, potassium, and beta-carotene that serve similar functions in the body.
There’s no denying that prolonged deficiency of certain vitamins can lead to illness and disease. The real question, though, is whether vitamin supplements are necessary for healthy individuals.
If you eat a diet full of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, there’s a good chance you already reach your suggested daily intake. And even if you eat a less-than-stellar diet, many types of processed foods are fortified with vitamins and minerals.
If you are taking a vitamin supplement in addition to eating well and consuming some fortified foods, you may be reaching vitamin levels much higher than the FDA and NIH recommend.
Multivitamins’ Dark Side
To visualize the downside of overdosing on vitamins, let’s consider an analogy. Would you take a powerful antibiotic every day, just in case? That kind of attitude leads to the kind of antibiotic resistant bacteria we’ve seen recently.
So why do we think it’s okay to have a just-in-case attitude when it comes to multivitamins? Certainly individuals at risk for a vitamin deficiency due to a poor diet or a preexisting medical condition should consider supplementing with a multivitamin to address that deficiency. But, if you’re otherwise healthy and don’t suspect a vitamin deficiency, the downsides of multivitamins easily outweigh the benefits.
Multivitamins often contain 100 percent (or more) of your recommended daily value of vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, and calcium. Unless you aren’t consuming any nutritional food at all, you simply don’t need these supplements.
Too Much of a Good Thing
So what happens when you start pumping too many vitamins and minerals into your body? Two meta-analyses of studies that collected data on the effects of multivitamin use in more than 400,000 patients found that individuals who took the daily supplement had an increased mortality rate .
A separate 2007 study found that women who took multivitamin supplements (vitamin C, E, beta-carotene, selenium, and zinc) increased their risk of developing skin cancer .
While it appears that multivitamin supplements may have alarming effects, can single vitamin supplements still hold benefits for the body? The quick answer: For healthy adults, probably not.
Vitamin A, which helps with vision and the immune system, is found in bright yellow and orange fruits and vegetables. All you need is one-quarter cup of sweet potatoes, a third of a cup of butternut squash, or half a medium-sized carrot to get your recommended daily value. It can also be found in dark leafy vegetables: a cup of kale or two cups of spinach will also give you your daily fix. Fortified sources, like most breakfast cereals, contain about 10 percent of the recommended daily value per serving.
Too much vitamin A, ingested through beta-carotene supplements, has been shown in two separate studies to increase the likelihood of developing lung cancer among smokers .
In one of these studies, the supplement increased the lung cancer risk by as much as 28 percent—so significant that it prompted the researchers to end the study early.
Vitamin E, a great antioxidant, can be found in wheat germ, dark leafy vegetables, various nuts and seeds, and vegetable oils. A serving of typical cereal will give you nearly half your daily recommended value of vitamin E.
Like vitamin A, elevated levels of vitamin E can seriously impact your health. A study that aimed to look at the supplement’s role in preventing cancer or cardiovascular disease found that excessive amounts of vitamin E increased patients’ risk of heart failure . A separate study on more than 135,000 patients found that supplemental vitamin E correlated with increased mortality rates . The authors even went as far as to conclude that vitamin E supplementation should be avoided. Lastly, a 2011 study in over 35,000 men reported that excessive Vitamin E supplementation significantly increased the risk of prostate cancer .
Calcium supplements are highly recommended to women to build stronger bones as they age. They’re so pervasive that you can find them in tasty chocolate and caramel chewables, in addition to the usual tablet form. Three cups of milk and two cups of yogurt or tofu get you up to your recommended daily value of calcium. Fortified sources (two cups of soy or almond milk and a serving of cereal) provide the same benefit.
Despite all of the talk of calcium building stronger bones, a study found that calcium supplements actually increase patients risk of hip fracture . Additionally, four separate studies found that patients who take calcium supplements were at a higher risk of death from cardiovascular disease .
Not Your Nutritional Insurance Plan
It’s too easy to think of vitamins as a “nutritional insurance plan.” If so many people take them, they must do something good, or at least not be harming our bodies, right? Doctors are catching on to the research and starting to advise against vitamin supplementation.
With that being said, remember that I specifically researched the effects of vitamin supplementation on healthy adults, aged 25-35. Although I have yet to come across any studies that said children or seniors benefit from a daily multivitamin, I didn’t look at those age groups in depth.
Also, just like any drug, vitamins can and should be prescribed for special cases. If you’re pregnant, your obstetrician/gynecologist will likely advise you to supplement with folic acid. If your doctor suspects you have a vitamin deficiency due to poor diet or a particular physiological problem, he or she might also advise you to use a specific supplement.
But for the rest of us, I simply couldn’t find any real benefits to taking vitamins, and more alarming, there appears to be the potential for significant health risks to taking too much of any vitamin supplement.
This article was originally produced as part of 75toGo, a project to publish research-intensive health and fitness stories for twentysomethings looking to create good practices and habits for the decades ahead.
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Vitamins, Minerals & Antioxidants Vitamins and Supplements Grow
JUNE 6, 2017 | BY SUSIE MOORE
The One Word That Can Instantly Change Your Mood
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No Regrets With Susie Moore Late last year I bought a $6 latte (since when did coffee get so freakin’ expensive?) from a hipster hangout, where I went to feel cool and write. When I went to take a sip after finishing a satisfying sentence, I was surprised to discover that I’d already finished it.
My fancy $6 coffee was gone. And I didn’t even remember tasting it.
In that moment—while on yet another deadline—it struck me that I’ve been busy for so long that when I’m doing stuff (including fun stuff!), I’m not sure I’m actually enjoying it. I’m not “in it” somehow.
It gave me a niggling feeling that I’m not having the full experience of my life as I’m living it. The tragedy wasn’t the evaporated, expensive drink (although that did leave me bewildered). It was life passing me by while I’m in my head and out of my body somehow. And I know I’m not alone.
I decided I needed something simple and easy to jolt me into the present, while, like everybody else, I’m just trying to make it through the week. It was a word: pleasure.
How much pleasure do you allow yourself to experience? Here are three simple ways to dial it up, pronto:
1. Have a trigger.
Next time you buy a coffee, a salad, a fro-yo—can the very activity itself trigger you into presence? Can the very ritual of it remind you to pause, just for a second, consider the word pleasure, and dig in mindfully to actually enjoy the dang thing?
2. Set reminders.
This might be annoying to some people, but I have an alarm that I set at random times of day that pops up when I least expect it with my one word: PLEASURE. Yesterday I was walking in the rain, and it popped up. I took a deep inhale, looked around, and noticed how much cleaner the city feels after a rainfall. I also remembered how pleasant the smell of rain can be, if you take a proper whiff. Even running an errand in a shower can spark pleasure if you allow it!
Another time, I was with my friends at an outdoor bar. I was on my phone (like most people). Then PLEASURE popped up. I looked up and truly saw my friends’ faces. One of them was laughing. In that moment, it was like I was seeing life in high-def. I put my phone down and dove into the guacamole and conversation.
3. Tune into your senses.
Many of us spend a good chunk o’ change on our furniture, threads, and accessories. When was the last time you really felt them?
For example, do you:
Feel the luxurious thread count of your sheets and cotton pajamas, or just fall into bed in a daze? Once you consider it—what’s better than your cozy, inviting bed at the end of the day?
Savor the softness of your scarf as it wraps around you and completes your look, or grab it while hollering, “Hold the elevator!”?
Taste your pasta and sauvignon blanc, or shovel it in while catching up on The Handmaids Tale? No wonder it’s so easy to overeat!
Enjoy the scent and texture of applying your hand cream or whack a blob on your palm and toss the tube in your bag? Most hand creams smell divine—we just never sniff them outside of the store we purchase them from on the first day.
Actually absorb the vibes emanating from your Spotify shuffle or skip, skip, skip until you land on a satisfactory song? Then skip, skip, skip again? Are you actually listening? Chill out and let the playlist surprise you!
Coming back to one word—pleasure—kicks a mundane day into living color. Whether I’m submitting my column, preparing my breakfast, petting my dog, calling my sister, or even sitting on the subway, listening to the hum of the carriage, I remember “pleasure, pleasure, pleasure,” and it all feels a little more delicious somehow.
How can you experience more pleasure in your life?
Susie Moore is Greatist’s life coach columnist and a confidence coach in New York City. Sign up for free weekly wellness tips on her website and check back every Tuesday for her latest No Regrets column!
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No Regrets Unfiltered Happiness Mood Live
FEBRUARY 16, 2016 | BY SUSIE MOORE
The 5 Biggest Regrets People Have Before They Die
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No Regrets With Susie Moore
Want to hear the strangest thing on earth?
Death is perhaps the most constructive fact of our existence. Being aware of death throughout your life can beget the healthiest attitude: one of perspective.
Countless people throughout history knew this too. The ancient Greeks used to “practice death every day,” and the Toltecs would use death as “fuel to live and to love.” The constant reminder ensured they would live more boldly, more kindly, and with less fear.
The Good News About Death
Here’s how the morbid subject can actually benefit us: Our limited days on earth are the ultimate impetus to live with less fear and more intention.
The majority of the time, many of us live as if there will be no end to our days. We stay in unfulfilling careers. We remain in unhappy relationships. We will travel the world “one day.” We fail to tell people how much they matter to us. We hide our real truth, gifts, or talents from the world because we are scared of being judged and criticized.
Losing a parent when I was young made this much more real for me. I felt blessed to come to the realization of how precarious and precious life is while still in my younger years. But you don’t need a loss early in your life to take advantage of the wisdom that awaits you. Learn from people who know.
One of my favorite books is Bronnie Ware’s international bestseller The Top Five Regrets of the Dying. Ware was a hospice nurse in Australia for several years and cared for patients in the last few weeks of their lives. She writes with incredible clarity how similar regrets surfaced again and again.
Surprise, surprise: There was no mention of insufficient status; undelivered revenge; or sadness over not being the thinnest, prettiest, or most famous. These were the most common regrets. (Numbers one and five could make me weep.)
The 5 Most Common Regrets
Here's what people regret the most at the end of their life.
1. I wish I’d had the courage to live a life true to myself, not the life others expected of me.
“This was the most common regret of all,” Ware writes. “When people realize that their life is almost over and look back clearly on it, it is easy to see how many dreams have gone unfulfilled. Most people had not honored even a half of their dreams and had to die knowing that it was due to choices they had made, or not made.”
2. I wish I hadn’t worked so hard.
“All of the men I nursed deeply regretted spending so much of their lives on the treadmill of a work existence.”
3. I wish I’d had the courage to express my feelings.
“Many people suppressed their feelings in order to keep peace with others. As a result, they settled for a mediocre existence and never became who they were truly capable of becoming. Many developed illnesses relating to the bitterness and resentment they carried as a result.”
4. I wish I had stayed in touch with my friends.
“Often they would not truly realize the full benefits of old friends until their dying weeks, and it was not always possible to track them down. Many had become so caught up in their own lives that they had let golden friendships slip by over the years. There were many deep regrets about not giving friendships the time and effort that they deserved.”
5. I wish that I had let myself be happier.
“This is a surprisingly common one. Many did not realize until the end that happiness is a choice. They had stayed stuck in old patterns and habits. The so-called ‘comfort’ of familiarity overflowed into their emotions, as well as their physical lives. Fear of change had them pretending to others, and to their selves, that they were content.”
Get Clear on What You Want
Here's what people regret the most at the end of their life.
Here’s an exercise I perform with my clients, which you can do at home to figure out what you want to do, have, and be during your precious days on planet earth.
Take an hour to be quiet with yourself, a time without distractions when you will not be interrupted. Picture yourself in your elderly years. Attempt to see your life through the lens of your 80- or even 90-year-old self.
Start a conversation with this wiser, older version of you. Be blatantly honest. Ask yourself:
What do I really, really, really want?
Where am I holding back?
What will I congratulate myself for having the courage to do, right now?
What part of myself do I really need to honor and be true to (even if this goes against others’ expectations of me)?
What really makes me feel happy and alive?
How can I make my happiness and my truth my number one priority?
It’s up to you to get the highest possible return on every day of your limited life. You can eradicate these potential regrets, starting now.
Whenever you think upon these questions, keep that older version of yourself in mind constantly. And every day, with every small action you take in the direction of your personal truth and happiness, he or she will be there, encouraging you. And he or she will be smiling.
Susie Moore is Greatist’s life coach columnist and a confidence coach in New York City. Sign up for her free Side Hustle Prep School and check back every Tuesday for her latest No Regrets column!
The $37 billion supplement industry is barely regulated — and it’s allowing dangerous products to slip through the cracks
Aug. 13, 2017, 2:15 PM 2,217
tongue pills vitamins supplements mouth
The $37 billion supplement industry is largely unregulated
Some supplements (a category that includes vitamins and herbs) can be dangerous and have been linked with ER visits and death
The FDA is currently recalling supplements found to be contaminated with banned drugs and bacteria
New supplement companies like Gwyneth Paltrow’s Goop continue to advertise their products as healthy despite potential side effects, and some say they target vulnerable consumers
When Pouya Jamshidi, a resident at Weill Cornell Medical College, delivered his first baby, the doctor on call told him to take the newborn away from its mother.
The baby, a healthy girl with mocha-pink skin and a powerful set of lungs, was being quarantined.
In the middle of the pregnancy, her mother had come down with tuberculosis. She’d contracted the contagious lung infection in her teens, and the illness came back despite preventative antibiotics and regular screenings. The cause: a popular herbal supplement called St. John’s wort.
“The trouble is most people don’t consider it a medication because you don’t need a prescription for it, and so she didn’t tell us,” Jamshidi told Business Insider.
St. John’s wort is one of the most popular herbal supplements sold in the United States. But in 2000, the National Institutes of Health published a study showing that St. John’s wort could severely curb the effectiveness of several important pharmaceutical drugs — including antibiotics, birth control, and antiretrovirals for infections like HIV — by speeding up their breakdown in the body.
“It basically overmetabolized the antibiotics so they weren’t in her system in the correct dose,” Jamshidi said.
The findings on St. John’s wort prompted the US Food and Drug Administration to warn doctors about the herbal remedy. But that did little to stem public sale or consumption of it. Over the past two decades, US poison-control centers have gotten about 275,000 reports — roughly one every 24 minutes — of people who reacted badly to supplements; a third of them were about herbal remedies like St. John’s wort.
Overdosing on a ‘natural’ supplement
The FDA defines supplements as products “intended to add further nutritional value to (supplement) the diet.” They aren’t regulated as drugs — only when a supplement is shown to cause significant harm is it called out as unsafe.
Half of all adult participants in a survey in the mid-2000s said they took at least one supplement every day — almost the same percentage of Americans who took them two decades ago. Yet research has consistently found the pills and powders to be ineffective and sometimes dangerous.
health food store vitamins natural organic
“Consumers should expect nothing from [supplements] because we don’t have any clear evidence that they’re beneficial, and they should be leery that they could be putting themselves at risk,” S. Bryn Austin, a professor of behavioral sciences at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, told Business Insider. “Whether it’s on the bottle or not, there can be ingredients in there that can do harm.”
Despite many such warnings, the supplement industry’s market is as much as $37 billion a year, according to one estimate. Ads for supplements can be found on internet pop-up windows, on social media, in magazine pages, and on TV. They’re sold in corner health stores, pharmacies, and big grocery conglomerates.
But supplements do not come with explicit instructions on how much to take — only a suggested dose — or potential drug interactions. Jamshidi’s patient had no idea she was putting her life or that of her baby at risk.
But she was not alone. Using data from 2004 to 2013, the authors of a 2016 study published in the New England Journal of Medicine estimated that 23,005 emergency-room visits a year were linked to supplements. Between 2000 and 2012, the annual rate of negative reactions to supplements — or “exposures” as they are known in scientific parlance — rose from 3.5 to 9.3 cases per 100,000 people, a 166% increase.
Over that period, 34 people died as a result of using supplements, according to a 2017 study published in the Journal of Medical Toxicology. Six of the deaths resulted from ephedra, the once popular weight-loss supplement banned by the FDA in 2004, and three people died from homeopathic remedies. One person died after using yohimbe, an herbal supplement used for weight loss and erectile dysfunction. (Certain formulations of it can be prescribed to treat erectile dysfunction.)
‘You don’t know what you’re dealing with’
Jamshidi said he knew many people who took a daily multivitamin and tried herbal formulations now and again when they were feeling tired or unwell and always withheld judgment. But he remembers the moment he became wary of supplements: when the pregnant woman his team was monitoring began coughing up phlegm.
“She had been an incredibly cooperative patient, super engaged and always showing up on time for her visits, taking all of our instructions carefully — just a really good patient,” Jamshidi said.
BI Graphics_Supplements chart supplements vitamins
Business Insider / Skye Gould
When Jamshidi and his team realized their patient’s tuberculosis was back, they asked if she’d started any new medications. She said no, but the next day she arrived at the clinic with a small bottle of St. John’s wort.
She said she had been taking the herbal remedy for the feelings of depression she experienced after her last pregnancy. Although some small studies initially suggested St. John’s wort could have benefits for people with depressive symptoms, the NIH researchers failed to find enough evidence to support that.
Jamshidi’s patient had to be isolated to ensure the infection didn’t spread. She spent the last three months of her pregnancy alone.
“It was miserable — she was isolated for all that time, and then she couldn’t even hold the baby,” Jamshidi said.
In his opinion, one of the reasons many people end up in emergency rooms after taking supplements is that the quantities of active ingredients in them can vary dramatically. A 2013 study published in the journal BMC Medicine found that doses of ingredients in supplements could even vary from pill to pill — which poses a significant hurdle for doctors trying to treat a negative reaction.
“There are other medications that can have side effects, but patients come in and tell you the dose, and you can reverse it,” Jamshidi said. “But with supplements, you don’t know what you’re dealing with.”
‘Vitamines’ to prevent disease
By isolating the first “vitamine” in 1912, the Polish chemist Casimir Funk unwittingly unleashed a frenzy among chemists to create or synthesize vitamins in the lab.
Between 1929 and 1943, 10 Nobel Prizes were awarded for work in vitamin research. By the mid-1950s, scientists had synthesized 12 of the 13 essential vitamins. These were added to foods like bread, cereal, and milk, which were sold as “fortified.” Foods that lost nutrients during processing got these vitamins added back in and were labeled “enriched.”
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A 1917 poster from the US Department of Agriculture advertised the ability to “grow vitamins” at home.Library of Congress
When supplements were introduced in the 1930s and 1940s, they were presented as a way to address nutrient deficiencies that caused illnesses like rickets and scurvy. They were also seen as a way to avoid expensive and difficult-to-access medical treatment.
In recent years, however, a new generation of supplements has emerged targeting primarily middle-class and affluent women. These formulas ooze with the lifestyle trends of 2017: minimalism (“Everything you need and nothing you don’t!”), bright colors, “clean eating,” and personalization.
The actress Gwyneth Paltrow’s new lineup of $90 monthly vitamin packs — released through her controversial wellness company, Goop — have appealing names like “Why Am I So Effing Tired” and “High School Genes.” They claim to deliver health benefits like energy boosts and metabolism jump-starts.
“What is different about what Goop offers is that the combinations, the protocols put together, were done by doctors in Goop’s team,” Alejandro Junger, a cardiologist who helped design several of Goop’s multivitamin packs, told Business Insider.
But a look at the ingredients in “Why Am I So Effing Tired,” which Junger helped design, suggests the formula is not based on rigorous science. The vitamin packets include 12.5 milligrams of vitamin B6 — about 960% of the recommended daily allowance (although on Goop’s label it is listed as 625%) — and ingredients like rosemary extract and Chinese yam, whose effects have never been studied in humans and for which no standard daily allowance exists.
According to the Mayo Clinic, vitamin B6 is “likely safe” in the recommended daily intake amount: 1.3 milligrams for people ages 19-50. But taking too much of the supplement has been linked with abnormal heart rhythms, decreased muscle tone, and worsened asthma. High doses of B6 can also cause drops in blood pressure, the Mayo Clinic notes, and can interact with drugs like Advil, Motrin, and those prescribed for anxiety and Alzheimer’s.
“People using any medications should check the package insert and speak with a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, about possible interactions,” the Mayo Clinic’s website says.
Gwyneth Paltrow, the owner of Goop.Mario Anzuoni / Reuters
Junger declined to comment on specific ingredients in the formula but said that many of them were added to “address the most common nutrient-mineral deficiencies of today: B, C, D, and E vitamins, iodine, magnesium, molybdenum, among others.”
Other shiny new pills and powders that have materialized in recent months include one called Ritual, which arrives at your doorstep in a white-and-yellow box emblazoned with the words “The future of vitamins is clear.”
A month’s supply of the glasslike capsules — filled with tiny white beads suspended in oil — costs $30. But the pills don’t differ much more than your standard, cheaper multivitamin — they have similar amounts of magnesium, vitamin K, folate, vitamin B12, iron, boron, vitamin E, and vitamin D.
VitaMe, another new supplement manufacturer, ships personalized daily packets with names like “Good Hair Day” and “Bridal Boost” in a box resembling a tea-bag dispenser each month for $40.
Its website says: “Our mission is peak nutrition. Delivered.” But its ingredients don’t differ drastically from those in conventional vitamins either.
One of Ritual’s supplements.Ritual
When vitamins can’t save us from ourselves
No matter how colorful their packaging or messaging, all these supplements fall prey to the same problem: We simply do not need them to be healthy.
“We use vitamins as insurance policies against whatever else we might (or might not) be eating, as if by atoning for our other nutritional sins, vitamins can save us from ourselves,” Catherine Price, a science reporter, writes in the book “Vitamania.”
A large recent review published in the Annals of Internal Medicine looked at 27 trials of vitamins involving more than 400,000 people. The researchers concluded that people who took vitamins did not live longer or have fewer cases of heart disease or cancer than people who did not take them.
Another long-term study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in May divided nearly 6,000 men into groups and gave them either a placebo or one of four supplements touted for their brain-protecting abilities. The results showed no decreased prevalence of dementia among any of the supplement-taking groups.
Study after study has also found that many popular supplements can cause harm. A large, long-term study of male smokers found that those who regularly took vitamin A were more likely to get lung cancer than those who didn’t. And a 2007 review of trials of several types of antioxidant supplements put it this way: “Treatment with beta carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E may increase mortality.”
Risks aside, research has suggested that our bodies are better equipped to process the vitamins and minerals in whole foods than those in pills. When we bite into a juicy peach or a crunchy Brussels sprout, we’re ingesting dozens of nutrients, including phytochemicals like isothiocyanates, as well as carotenoids.
Austin said that’s why “nutritionists recommend people get their nutrition from whole foods, not things that have been packaged and put into a box.”
Virtually any registered dietitian, physician, or public health expert is likely to reiterate the advice health professionals have been giving for decades: Eat real food, like fruits and veggies, in moderation, and stay away from processed foods and sugary beverages. Or, in the words of the journalist and food writer Michael Pollan: “Eat food. Not too much. Mostly plants.”
avocado smoked salmon blueberries healthy food meal bowl tomatoes lunch
Where’s the FDA regulation?
After spending the last few months of her pregnancy and the first few weeks of her new baby’s life in isolation, Jamshidi’s patient was able to go home and be with her family. Jamshidi said the experience changed the way he thought about supplements for good.
“I feel very negatively about them, and I didn’t feel this way going into it,” he said.
Ask Steven Tave, the director of the office of dietary supplement programs at the FDA, why the agency isn’t stopping more similar situations, and he’ll give a simple answer: “We’re doing the best we can.”
In 1994, Congress passed a controversial law called the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act. Tave said that before DSHEA passed, the FDA was starting to regulate supplements more stringently, the way it does pharmaceutical drugs, but getting “pushback from the industry.” The law forced the agency to be more lenient.
Before a new drug can be sold, the company making it has to apply for FDA approval, and the agency has to conclude that the drug is safe and does what it claims to do.
“So if the drug says, you know, ‘used to treat cancer,’ then the agency’s reviewers are going to look at it and make a determination that there’s evidence that it does treat cancer,” Tave said.
New supplements don’t face any burden of proof. The agency can review products that add new dietary ingredients when it gets a notification, Tave said, but it doesn’t “have the authority to stop anything from going to market.”
When DSHEA was passed, Tave said, the bill still made sense. In 1994, about 600 supplement companies were producing about 4,000 products for a total revenue of about $4 billion. But that market has since ballooned — today, close to 6,000 companies pump out about 75,000 products.
“We’re regulating that with 26 people and a budget of $5 million,” Tave said.
Removing a supplement from store shelves comes down to documented emergency-room visits and calls to poison-control centers. Only when a supplement is reported to be unsafe as a result of one of these “adverse events,” as the FDA calls them, is the agency compelled to act.
“Most of the time, we don’t know a product is on the market until we see something bad about it from an adverse-event report. It’s a very different regime from when we know everything is out there and we know what’s in it,” Tave said, adding: “We don’t want to be reactive. We want to be proactive. But we can’t be.”
‘Consumers have no way to know’
Most unsafe supplements have been found to contain ingredients that aren’t listed on their labels — usually, these are pharmaceutical drugs, some of which have been banned by the FDA.
A study of product recalls published in 2013 in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that of the 274 supplements recalled by the FDA between 2009 and 2012, all contained banned drugs. A 2014 report found that more than two-thirds of the supplements purchased six months after being recalled still contained banned drugs.
“The products we see today have gone way beyond that sort of core group that they were in 1994,” Tave said. “Now they’re promoted for all sorts of things — some are long term, some are short term, some are chemicals no one’s ever seen before. It’s a much different universe than it was at the time.”
Austin says three categories of supplements are the “most lawless of the industry”: physical enhancement, weight loss, and sexual performance.
“Some of these companies won’t identify ingredients that they purposefully put in the products,” she said. “Some weight-loss drugs, for example, that have been pulled from the market — we can still find these in the bottle even though they don’t put it on the label.”
Tave’s 26-person team, the only government employees looking into these issues, didn’t even have a dedicated office until about a year and a half ago.
“We’re pretty sure were not aware of everything that’s out there, but we do what we can,” he said. “All we can do is enforce the law.”
Dangerous supplements continue to seep through the cracks, however.
In 2016, the world’s largest supplement maker, GNC Holdings Inc., agreed to pay $2.25 million to avoid federal prosecution over allegations that it sold a performance-enhancing supplement that claimed to increase speed, strength, and endurance with an active ingredient called dimethylamylamine, or DMAA. Two soldiers who used the supplement died in 2011, which prompted the Defense Department to remove all products containing DMAA from stores on military bases.
A recent indictment against USPlabs, the Texas-based company that made the supplement, accused it of falsely claiming the product was made of natural plant extracts when it really contained synthetic stimulants made in China.
The problems are ongoing. Earlier this year, the FDA recalled several supplements after they were found to contain unapproved new drugs, and two more were recalled after they were found to contain unlisted anabolic steroids. On August 11, just days before this article was published, the FDA recalled another batch of supplements — this time pills manufactured by a company called PharmaTech — because of possible contamination with bacteria that can cause serious respiratory infection.
“Consumers have no way to know that what’s in the label is what’s actually in the bottle or box,” Austin said. “There are many dubious companies out there that are willing to take a risk with consumers health and their lives.”
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Posted by: admin | September 22, 2017
subsidies as that’s crony capitalism with government bureaucrats picking ‘winners’ in the market.
You’re talking of capitalism as if it’s some kind of abstract entity with its own will and goals, whereas capitalism is nothing more than a set of practices, enacted by people. And those people who came up with those rules in the first place did so with the explicit goal of getting rich.
— David Grace; DavidGraceAuthor.com
Some people who love capitalism think it’s the economic underpinning for an anarchist or libertarian society.
Some people who hate capitalism think it’s an economic system whose purpose is to make greedy people rich.
Capitalism is an economic system designed to use private wealth to:
1) Promote the introduction of new products and services
2) Promote the improvement of existing products and services
3) Reduce the prices of all products and services
To do that it uses two basic tools: free-market price competition and the lure of possible riches.
Capitalism Doesn’t Care If People Get Rich Or Go Broke
The purpose of a lottery is not to make people rich. The purpose of a lottery is to make money by selling tickets. The lottery only offers the promise of getting rich as a lure to get people to buy tickets.
Capitalism doesn’t care if people get rich or go broke. It only offers the promise of riches as lure to get people to invest money to create or improve products and services.
To accomplish the goals of new products, better products and cheaper products, capitalism holds out the hope of wealth in the same way that a pack animal is encouraged to move forward by a carrot dangling in front of it at the end of a stick.
Two Fundamental Systems Of Production
At the most fundamental level, there are two basic systems for designing and producing products:
1) Central Planning. Government planners decide what quantities of what products will be needed and at what price they should be sold, and they use tax money to develop and manufacture those products at prices they arbitrarily set.
2) Market Forces. Large numbers of individuals and companies use their own wealth to create or produce products in the hope that people will buy them, thus making the investors/sellers rich.
The Central Planning system pushes predetermined products onto the consumers, and it disconnects the cost of production from the price charged.
In the Market Forces system, consumer demand pulls products from the producers and bidding between consumers sets the price.
As a system, capitalism wants is to have the widest possible variety of products offered at the lowest possible prices so that the public has the greatest possible number of product choices at the lowest possible prices.
The basic idea underlying capitalism is to use the lure of wealth, the hope of wealth, to motivate people to invest in creating and offering new products and services because that’s a more efficient and effective way of creating and improving products than the central-planning alternative.
Price In A Central-Planning System
One of the promises of a central-planning system is that important products will be priced below cost so that everyone who needs them will be able to afford them. For example, milk might be deemed so important to children’s health that it will be priced at ten cents per quart even though the government’s milk production cost is a dollar per quart.
On the other hand, gasoline might be priced at ten dollars per gallon when the production cost is three dollars per gallon because the planners deem private cars to be a wasteful and polluting product in comparison with public transportation.
In a central-planning system prices can be set artificially low or high depending on the planner’s evaluation of the product’s social utility, the availability of resources, etc. In theory, the central planner will correctly predict the quantity needed and the price that should be charged and supply will match demand.
But in the real world that almost never happens.
Central Planning Fails
Demand is inextricably linked to price so arbitrary changes in price inevitably lead to material changes in demand. Mismatches between supply and demand then further disrupt the economy with secondary problems such as inefficient production methods, black markets, rationing, and the like.
In the central-planning model, without market demand as the principal tool to adjust supply and price, desired products are often in short supply while unwanted or overpriced products sit in warehouses.
The promise of the central-planning system is that critical products and services will be made available to all citizens through below-cost pricing.
The reality of the central-planning system is that price, supply and demand are not only inter-related variables but they are also generally unpredictable at any one point in time. Even worse, they vary widely over time because of changes in consumer demographics, season, tastes, alternative products and other factors.
This makes it essentially impossible to deliver the needed quantity and variety of products under a central-planning system, leastwise deliver new products no one has ever thought of before.
That leaves us with a market-driven system, namely, capitalism.
Price In A Capitalist System
The second goal of the capitalist system after promoting the creation of new and improved products is to deliver those products at the lowest possible price.
The mechanism capitalism uses to deliver the lowest possible price is free-market competition.
The paradox of capitalism is that entrepreneurs hate low prices and they hateprice competition.
Capitalists are in business to make the most possible money. They want to charge the highest possible prices not the lowest ones. They don’t give a damn about saving people money or benefiting society.
In fact, capitalists don’t want to save their customers any money at all. Quite the opposite. They want to take as much of their customer’s money as they can get.
Capitalists only lower prices when market factors force them to. Every capitalist wants to eliminate price competition for their product, but not for their suppliers products.
Every producer wants to charge not the competitive price but rather the monopoly price, the highest price that the market will bear.
The worst enemies of capitalism’s basic principal of free-market competition are the capitalists themselves.
Two Things That Kill Capitalism
The absolute required tool for keeping prices low is price competition.
The two principal destroyers of price competition are:
1) Monopolies, and
2) The absence of minimum product standards
A monopoly destroys one of the fundamental goals of capitalism: low prices through marketplace competition.
Monopolies are Ebola to capitalism.
If a producer has a monopoly from a patent, a cartel, control of a vital method of marketing or distribution, control of a key component or technology, or any other factor that limits or eliminates competition, the producer will not charge a competitive market price which is usually some variant of the total of Cost + Overhead + Reasonable Profit.
Once a producer is shielded from competition it will as quickly as possible raise prices in an attempt to get as close as possible to an “all the market will bear” price also known as a “monopoly price” or the “maximum gross revenue price.”
Monopolies are absolutely toxic to capitalism because they kill price competition.
Lack Of Standards
In order to have price competition the consumer must be able to quickly, easily and effectively compare and choose between similar types of products from different manufacturers.
If, for example, there are minimum standards of cleanliness for bottled water then the consumer can easily pick a supplier based upon price and whatever other factors the consumer cares about, e.g. container size, filtered vs. spring water, etc. because the consumer can trust that cleanliness and purity are a common quality among all the brands he is considering buying.
But if there are no purity standards one manufacturer can fill uncleaned, recycled bottles with water out of the Flint River, label them “Nature’s Own”, claim they are “all natural” and sell then at a fraction of the cost of other brands that use new containers and ultra-pure water.
If and when consumers finally learn that they’re actually getting contaminated water in dirty bottles the company will have made a fortune, gone out of business, and re-opened under another name.
Sellers of pure water in new, clean bottles can’t effectively compete with ultra-cheap Flint River water in old bottles. In order to match prices they too will have to begin selling a substandard product.
In a price-competition market where the consumers cannot trust that basic standards of safety, cleanliness, and performance have been met, where consumers do not know the technical differences between competing products, Gresham’s law drives out quality products in favor of inferior ones in a race to the bottom.
One of the goals of capitalism is to create better products. A race to the bottom destroys better products and encourages worse products, exactly the opposite of the goals capitalism was created to achieve.
A marketplace that encourages that race to the bottom is deadly to capitalism. It kills capitalism.
The only way to avoid that race to the bottom is to require that all producers adhere to minimum standards of quality and safety.
Lack of minimum product standards is cancer to capitalism’s goals of better products at the lowest prices through free-market competition.
Capitalism & Anarchism
Anarchists and libertarians who think that sellers should have the right to enter into monopoly or cartel agreements cannot be capitalists because monopolies and cartels are toxic to capitalism.
Minimum standards of quality, purity, effectiveness, toxicity, etc. are vital to maintain a level playing field so that manufacturers can deliver competing, quality products.
Those minimum standards are similarly vital for the consumers’ ability to accurately compare competing products in the marketplace.
Anarchists and libertarians who think that there should be no government regulations or minimum standards for products cannot be capitalists because capitalism cannot create and promote better products without a minimum, uniform set of product standards.
Without price competition and a level playing field capitalism can’t work.
Capitalism is a great system for delivering new and improved products at low prices but only to the extent that the products are required to meet reasonable minimum standards and are subject to competition.
To the extent that patents, cartels, restrictions on distribution, materials, or labor materially reduce competition, as a system capitalism dies.
To the extent that a lack of minimum standards forces quality products to compete with apparently similar but actually substandard products, capitalism dies.
— David Grace
The washing machine changed the world more than the internet. That is one of a number of provocative assertions made by the economist Ha-Joon Chang in 23 Things They Don’t Tell You About Capitalism.
The washing machine and other household appliances have transformed the way that modern people live—not least by -liberating women from assigned roles in performing time-consuming household chores. Nor does the internet look that impressive compared to the telegraph, which reduced the time it took to transmit a message across the Atlantic or North America by a factor of 2,500, from two weeks in the early 1860s to a few minutes. In contrast: “The internet reduced the transmission time of a 300-word message from ten seconds on the fax machine to, say, two seconds, but this is only a reduction by a factor of five.”
This counterintuitive capsule argument is the exception to the rule in the book. Most of the “things” to which the chapters are devoted are better described as “themes” than “things.” “There is no such thing as a free market” (Thing one), “Equality of opportunity may not be fair” (Thing 20). In his latest book, Chang, an expert on economic development who teaches at Cambridge University, continues the polemic against what George Soros calls free-market fundamentalism that he waged in his earlier books Kicking Away the Ladder (2002), winner of the Gunnar Myrdal prize, and Bad Samaritans: Rich Nations, Poor Policies and the Threat to the Developing World (2007). The format chosen by Chang is suited to bite-size morsels of information like the washing machine-internet comparison, but it becomes -awkward when he tries to make complex arguments with references to other sections. Recognising this, he provides the reader with “7 Ways to Read 23 Things They Don’t Tell You About Capitalism” in the preface: “Way 1. If you are not even sure what capitalism is, read: Things 1, 2, 5, 8, 13, 16, 19, 20 and 22.” This inadvertently -introduces an element of surrealism, as if The General Theory of John Maynard Keynes had been rewritten by Borges.
On the other hand, we live in an era of short attention spans, and readers on plane journeys could profit from dipping at random into this book. Chang has made many of the same points in his previous works, but the great recession has made his critique of conventional free-market economics more relevant than ever. He points out that Britain, the first country to industrialise, as well as the US, Germany and Japan, all became leading industrial powers by various forms of protectionism—only to adopt and preach free trade when they were confident that their carefully nurtured industries could prevail over foreign competition. “Most of the rich countries did not use such policies when they were developing countries themselves, while these policies have slowed down growth and increased income inequality in the developing countries in the last three decades. Few countries have become rich through free-trade, free-market policies and few ever will.”
One need not be persuaded by his argument to enjoy Chang’s attack on attempts to explain Africa’s current backwardness in terms of geography or other structural handicaps: “Thing 11. Africa is not destined for underdevelopment.” Another sacred cow that Chang slaughters with relish is the idea that we are living in a truly global economy with truly post-national corporations. In fact, there is a distinct “home-country bias” in multinational capitalism: “Thus, despite the globalization rhetoric, the nationality of a firm is still a key to deciding where its high-grade activities, such as R&D and strategising, are going to be located.” The idea that small entrepreneurs are the source of modern economic growth is another neoliberal myth of the 1990s that Chang rebuts. Poor countries have far more self-employed people than rich ones. “The collective ability to build and manage effective organizations and institutions is now far more important than the drives or even the talents of a nation’s individual members in determining its prosperity.”
Without necessarily sharing Chang’s views on other subjects, the professor of international business Alan Rugman has made a similar argument about the regional basis of multinational corporations, while the professor of entrepreneurial studies Scott Shane has warned against romanticising small business. The continuing disconnect between scholarship like theirs and the rhetoric of politicians and pundits about globalisation and small business makes Chang’s attempt to inject doses of reality into popular -discourse all the more important.
Cicero wondered how two soothsayers could pass each other in the streets without bursting into laughter, and the same thing might be said about neoclassical economists. Like other “heterodox” -economists, Chang hopes to return a field dominated until recently by the narrow schools of New Classicism and New -Keynesianism to its origins in historically informed and context-sensitive “political economy.” But that may be too much to hope for. The great depression of the 1930s was far more severe than the great recession of the present is likely to be, and yet the pre-Keynesian economics that failed both to anticipate and to ameliorate that depression not only survived the 1930s but -triumphed in the universities and policies of the last quarter of the 20th century. While the guild of academic economists may continue to ignore maverick economic thinkers like Chang, the future of the world economy may depend on whether the rest of us pay attention.
British political parties now seem to be converging around a rhetoric of ‘responsible capitalism’. Is this a positive development? Is it likely to cause any real change?
It’s positive of course, but really what do they exactly mean by it?
Take the case of high pay. Whether the pay gap is growing and so on of course is an important issue, but I think the bigger issue is what these people are being paid for. In my view the bigger problem is that these people are being paid for running companies in short-term orientated ways, and then in that process very often (if not always) destroying the firm in the long run by not investing in technology, in training. They are making money by increasing market power through take-overs, when mergers and acquisitions don’t necessarily result in better performance. They get paid high salaries for paying high dividends and engaging in share buybacks, once again weakening the company in the long run and in the process squeezing workers, suppliers, and other stakeholders.
I think that’s the bigger problem. We really need to question those practices. But I think the Tories are not interested and Labour, so far, only marginally so. It’s good that people talk about ‘responsible capitalism’, but when they say the solution is to give more power to shareholders I have a huge problem. The increased power of short-term floating shareholders is at the root of this problem.
What other forms of accountability are likely to be more effective?
You would have to weaken the short-term shareholders by making mergers and acquisitions more difficult, by making it – through regulatory measures – compulsory for managers to take care of other stakeholders; we have to reform this very notion that companies are properties of shareholders. They are the property of every stakeholder.
We also need to make sure that managers do not get compensated well for doing things that harm society, harm the long term future of the company, exploiting the weaker stakeholders. I think it’s actually quite sad to hear people say that the shareholders can take care of all these problems because it’s in their own interest. What is being forgotten is that, unlike the traditional capitalist, the shareholders don’t have any long-term commitment to the company.
Do the shareholders themselves lose out in the long term from this ‘shareholder value’ approach?
Yes, they also suffer; but they have more options. They can go buy a Korean company or invest in Chinese assets. They think that if this particular goose that lays the golden eggs dies, we can get another goose. But if you are the goose, you are in trouble.
Posted by: admin | September 22, 2017
Xylopia aethiopica, commonly called African pepper or Guinea pepper belongs to the family Annonaceae.
Xylopia aethiopica, a plant found throughout West Africa, has both nutritional and medicinal uses. The cloves of the plant Xylopia aethiopica, a member of the custard apple family, Annonaceae, are used as a spice in various traditional dishes of Western and Central Africa. The plant is also used in decoction to treat dysentery, bronchitis, ulceration, skin infection and female sterility.
Commonly called goat weed and billy goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides L. belongs to the plant family Asteraceae (formerly Compositae).
Ageratum conyzoides has been used in folklore for the treatment of fever, pneumonia, cold, rheumatism, spasm, headache, and curing wounds. It is gastro-protective, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-analgesic, antipyretic, anticoccidial, and anticonvulsant properties have been reported.
Ageratum conyzoides are considered to be antiseptic.
Commonly called scent leaf or tea bush, Ocimum gratissimum is of the plant family Lamiaceae.
Considered cancer-fighting potential of scent leaf extracts and the anti- proliferation activity of prostate cancer (PC-
It’s antibacterial activity and its cytotoxic effects against cancer cell lines. These are related to the traditional uses of bark and fruit extracts for treating diseases caused by micro-organisms and as a remedy for skin cancer.
Coantains compounds from extracts were able to inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells. Bitter l chemical compounds found in the bitter leaf herb are known as steroid glycosides – type vernonioside B1. These compounds possess potent anti- parasitic, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-bacterial effects.
papaya leaf extract and its tea have dramatic cancer-fighting properties against a broad range of tumors, backing a belief held in a number of folk traditions. papaya ’s anticancer effect against tumors of the cervix, breast, liver, lung and pancreas.
cannabis sativa popularly known as Marijuana
Cannabis sativa is useful for psychoactive and medicinal purposes. Its main active ingredient, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
Cannabis sativa has been used as an antispasmodic to control coughing, as well as an anti-phlegmatic to dry up secretions such as excess phlegm (by acting as a expectorant) and diarrhea. Cannabis sativa is also used this way to relieve intraocular pressure caused by fluid buildup in the eye, and as a diuretic. There is also some evidence that Cannabis sativa may work directly to relieve some symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis
Posted by: admin | September 15, 2017
Photos that bear no resemblance to item been sold.
This is a template a lot of online scammers use. They tell you they live somewhere very far and often inaccessible. Sometimes outside your country. The idea is to:
Just don’t. Don’t part with a single penny until you’ve seen the product and it is what you hoping to buy.
Greedy buyer is a scammmer’s best accomplice. If it is too good to be true in most cases it is a scam.
Avoid Scam emails purportedly sent from Banks, visit your bank physically.
Don’t access your bank account or via public network.
Comprising of letter, numbers and special characters e.g “$%”@ etc
Don’t give away our important information via fake competition or FREEBIES.
Don;’t open suspicious email from your friends – it might be phising. Some body pretending to be your friends
Make sure your mobile is passworded
Your card details might be stolen
Never click a LINK not trusted
Even if it is sent by your mate
Posted by: admin | September 15, 2017
Chicken is a good source of protein and is much healthier to eat than red meat which is high in cholesterol.
The production of chicken is called poultry farming. Poultry farming business is highly profitable if it is properly run under acceptable methods and conditions conducive for the birds. Each type of livestock farming, poultry included, follows specific operational principles if they must run profitably. Failure to follow this guidelines can result in huge losses.
Decide on the type of poultry farm you want
There are a number of things you can do as a poultry farmer, these include:
· Breeding chickens for sale
· Producing eggs for sale
· Producing chicken meat for sale
· Producing poultry feed (chicken food) for sale
· Processing eggs and chicken meat for sale
To achieve success in poultry farming, a lot of work is involved.
Some guides below to assist you run a poultry farm successfully and make profit.
Be warned “it is not a lazy man’s business.”
i. Start with day-old chicks than with older chicks.
ii. Start with about 500 day-old chicks if you are interested in the production of eggs and selling off the layers when they are old. It takes about 18-20 weeks (5 months) to feed and nurture the birds before they start laying eggs. On the average, 100 birds will produce a minimum of 80 eggs daily. So if an entrepreneur starts with 500 birds and all birds 500 survive, they will be getting a minimum of 400 eggs daily, which is good output. Once the birds start laying, they will do so for 74 weeks, after which they become due for disposal. However, the birds could still lay after 74 weeks, if properly fed.
iii. Choose a proper housing methods – DEEP LITTER SYSTEM and THE BATTERY CAGE. Both methods are good, provided that proper hygiene is maintained.
In the deep litter system, the pullets are placed on bare floor that has been covered with saw dust.
Careful consideration is given to the method applied in feeding the birds. Removing the dropping usually poses no problem. You can either pack off the entire saw dust with the dropping or cover the dropping with fresh saw dust.
Normally, the day-old chicks are housed using the brooder method before they grow up. They can be transferred to the battery cage when they approach their egg-laying period, or left in the deep litter floor.
The battery cage housing allows for the droppings to fall on a separate platform directly under the cage. It is uniquely constructed to make feeding and drinking quiet easy for the birds. The birds feed on marsh, which have been properly compounded. The marsh should be given according to an expert’s advice.
iv. Avoid inappropriate feeding which can lead to excess fat, which can result in mortality. In fact, defective feeding can lead to low egg production. In fact, it has been experienced in the past where a whole stock of birds produced no egg, due to wrong feeding.
v. Health of the birds is important. If the necessary drugs are not properly administrated, poultry farming can turn into a nightmare.
Take seriously expert advice on the type of drug to administer on the birds as well as the dosage.
When birds are hatched, there is a vaccination time table to be followed; if this is not done, the farmer that buys this stock from the source may have serious problems.
The farmer should take pain to do it by himself or hire a qualified and honest consultant / veterinary doctor in order to get the desired result.
vii. Be prudent poultry farmer must keep a close watch over the cost of running the farm; he must avoid unnecessary spending, which tends to eat away his profit. The labour, feeds, drugs and other input costs must be in line with standard farm requirements, otherwise such expenses should be ignored.
All forms of wasteful spending must be eliminated, no matter how insignificant the amount may seem to the management.
viii. The farm manager should be a qualified person with a wealth of experience in poultry management. The management of the farm must be able to plan ahead its activities and be able to compare actual performance with the drawn plan in order to apply control measures whenever a deviation from the original plan is observed. It must not be an armchair management that cares less about what may be happening to the birds at any given time. The management should be sensitive to the conditions on the farm and be in firm control of all situations. The ability to act promptly and take the right decisions at the right time is indispensable for the farm manager.
ix. The market for poultry products is quite enormous. It is noteworthy that all parts of the birds are marketable including the feather and the droppings (for manure).
x. Hygiene Deficiency
There is a minimum hygiene condition that must exist in any poultry farm if the birds are to remain healthy and produce maximally for profit. The poultry farm must be kept clean always; the droppings should be cleared on time before they constitute an agent of disease
A poultry farm must be established in a secured place to ward off enemies of birds, such as rats, soldier ants, snakes, wild birds, etc. Most of these enemies are agents of disease that could lead to an epidemic on the farm, and they kill the birds directly as well.
When picking a location, consider
A marketing plan is absolutely necessary for successful commercial poultry farming, as any farmer ignorant of his or her marketing needs is bound to run into serious losses and eventual failure. It will be ridiculous to start poultry production without knowing when, where, how and to whom to sell the fowls, eggs, feathers and droppings as they are produced. We cannot talk of profit if the meat and eggs have no ready market. Eggs have a very short shelf life and if they are not sold quickly, they will go bad, and no one is interested in buying bad eggs.
Also, birds not sold at the appropriate time will be fed at an extra cost that may make the business unprofitable. Therefore, adequate marketing strategies are needed to sell all the poultry products at the appropriate time and prices.
xiv. Increased awareness of health issues associated with red meat has made chicken consumption a great alternative for many and Chickens mature very quickly, meaning the business has the potential to generate high returns on your investment in a short period of time.
xv. This may not be a big market, but in the interest of using the entire animal, when it’s molting season, don’t forget to collect the feathers! This is especially true to more flashy breeds and roosters- whose hackle and tail feathers are very popular with crafters.
Posted by: admin | September 14, 2017
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Shop 12, New Giwa Shopping Complex, Ikoyi, Lagos01 812 2947
ABBA’s Placeis a female clothing and accessories boutique located in Ikoyi Lagos
52, Diya Street, Ifako Gbagada, Kosofe, Lagos0803 429 8246
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F9 Lagos City Mall, Opp Muson Center, Onikan, Lagos01 774-6719, 0803 310-3912
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Bliss Fashions Wholesale And Retail
80, Adeniran Ogunsanya Street, (1st Floor) Kings Plaza Shopping Mall, Surulere, Lagos0806 914 9685
15, Adeola Shopping Mall, GRA, Ikeja, Lagos01 4727745, 08033026906
1a Babani Street, Ebute-metta west, Ebute-metta, Lagos0802 850 7689
52, Awolowo Road, Ikoyi, Lagos0802 313 8716, 01 267
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Clothing & More.
Ladegbuwa Plaza, Plot 6, Asabi Cole road,Agidingbi, Ikeja, Lagos01 811 6214
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2, Adeniran Ogunsanya Street, Surulere, Lagos0803 354 9993, 01 892 1817
De Javu (Shoe Place)
66, Allen Avenue, Ikeja, Lagos0803 303 8127, 01 493 4961
Dee Top Choice Boutique
25 Toyin Street, Ikeja, Lagos01 818 8412
Posted by: admin | August 6, 2017